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Gwani

THE HISTORY OF GWANI IN GOMBE STATE NIGERIA BY ABDULLAH ALIYU GWANI

the history of a sleeping lion (Gwani) in northern Nigeria i,When eventually Gombe was not made a province, it was compensated with the return to Gombe of the enclave(emirate) of Gwani comprising of Hinna,shinga and Wade and some villages..

The Nymalti were in the Gombe region long before the advent of the Fulani jihad, and for many years wandered through the area in one family with three headship of hunters, fishers and farmers known as Bima enclave comprising Gwani, Wade and Hinna that setup their towns at Bima hills.

Until the later harried by raids from the fulani that forced them to self-defence and being afraid where divided into family in difference location.only Gwani remains at its place by the river-bed of the Bima hill who was noted to be farmers and fishers. Wade, Shinga and Wuyo who were farmers move to north-east base of the Bima hills.

Geographic features & Photographs around Gwani, in Nigeria (general), Nigeria



Populated Place; GWANI and its , towns, villages, or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work under gwani enclave(emirate) in 1886.

Stream; a body of running water moving to a lower level in a channel on land.

Hills; rounded elevations of limited extent rising above the surrounding land with local relief of less than 300m.

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Written by Bashir Musa Liman Saturday, 08 September 2012 14:37

Kafin na yi cikakken bayanin yadda aka samu sunan garin Gombe, yana da kyau na yi waiwaye, wanda masu hikimar zance kan ce, shi waiwayen adon tafiya ne. kwarai kuwa waiwayen da zan yi yanzu yana da matukar muhimmanci, zai kuma zama kamar wata fitila mai haske da zai haska abubuwan da zan zayyano daki-daki cikin makunshiyar sakin layukan da za su biyo baya. Tarihi ya nuna cikin karni na 14 (14 Century) aka fara sanin garin Gombe, sai dai kafin wannan lokacin an yi wasu mutane masu karama da sarauta da ake kira‘Soninke Mandigos’, wadannan mutane su ne suka samar da tsatson garin Gombe, kuma mutanen yankin Sudan (Tarekh-el-Sudan) ke musu lakabi da ‘Fararen Shugabanni’.Wadannan mutane ana kuma kiran su da ‘Kaya-Manga’. Sun mulki yammacin Sudan na wasu karnoni da dama. A cikin Kaya-Mangan an samu wani mutum da ake kira Bin-Kaya Mob, wanda sarki ne a wata masarauta da ake kira Mande, a dai yammacin Sudan din, wanda kuma wannan sarki ya ci zamaninsa a cikin karni na 10 ne. Sarki Bin-Kaya Mob yana matukar ji da jikansa Bin-Abubakar, wanda har ta kai ko kuda ba ya so ya taba shi. Ya mayar da shi dan lelensa kuma shafaffe da mansa. Hakan ce ma ta sanya Kaya Mob ya bai wa jikan nasa wani bangare na masarautar tasa da ake kira Ukuba. Bin-Abubakar kaka ne ga Aliyu Ukuba, wanda shi kuma yake mahaifi ga Usman. Aliyu Ukuba shahararren malami ne, ya haddace Al-kur’ani, wanda daga baya aka hada shi aure da ‘yar gidan wani attajiri a garin Tibati, inda kuma suka haifi Usman. Usman ya zauna a kauyen Lakumma kusa da garin Shellen, a nan kuma ya ci gaba da wa’azi don a bi addinin musulunci. Da na yi waiwaye ne kan tarihinsu game da addinin musulunci, sai na gano masarautar Kaya-Manga sun karbi musulunci daga Abubakar Almarobid (Sanha-ja-Imam) tun a shekara ta 1077, bayan Almarobid ya kafa daular musulunci a wajen. Usman Ukuba ya auri Janaba ‘yar gidan Gongon (Amna), wanda shi ne sarkin Shellen. Sun haifi da namiji da aka rada wa suna Abubakar a garin Mada (tsohon garin Shellen) a shekarar 1762. Zuri’ar da ake kira KAMBARIJO ke nan. Ma’anar kalmar Kambarijo ita ce, zuri’a daga Kaya-Manga da kuma mutanen garin Shellen. Mahaifin Abubakar ya mutu yana yada addinin musulunci a garin da daga baya aka san shi da Gombe, a lokacin garin yana karkashin masarautar Adamawa ne. Bayan mahaifin Abubakar ya rasu ne, sai mahaifiyarsa ta mayar da shi wajen kakansa, wanda a nan ne kakan nasa ya yi masa lakabin ‘Buba Yero’. Kalmar‘Buba’ na nufin Abubakar yayin da ‘Yero’ ta samo tsatsonta daga Kanakuru Janafalu, wanda take nufin Manyan ko dara-daran idanu. Kasancewar da ma yana da manya idanu. Sannu a hankali, sai lakabin Buba Yero ya danne asalin sunansa na Abubakar Bin-Usmanu. Ya fara karatun Muhammadiyarsa a wajen mahaifinsa, sai dai kuma bayan rasuwar mahaifinsa, sai ya tafi Kukawa a cikin masarautar Barno, inda ya ci gaba da karatun addini. A shekarar 1810 ya ziyarci mujaddadi Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo a garin Degel. Sai dai kafin ya karasa Degel ne ya yada zango a Katsina, inda a nan sarkin Katsina ya ba shi auren ‘yarsa Zulai. An yi biki har ma Allah Ya azurta su da da namiji aka masa suna Sulaiman (sarkin Gombe na farko, 1842-1844). Ya sake zuwa a tarihi lokacin da Buba Yero yake zuwa Degel ya yada zango a Daura, inda a nan ma sarkin Daura ya hada shi aure da ‘yarsa Hauwa, wadda ita ce mahaifiyar Muhammadu kwairanga (sarkin Gombe na 2). Tarihi ya nuna in ka dauke sarki Sulaimanu da yake da tsatso daga Katsina, sauran sarakunan Gombe tsatson masarautar Daura ne. Buba Yero ya shafe shekaru goma a wajen Shehu dan Fodiyo, wanda a shekarar 1820 Shehu ya ba shi Tuta ta 5 daga cikin tutoci 12 da ya fara rabawa. Buba Yero ya dawo Shellen daga nan ya ci gaba da Jihadi, har lokacin da Shehu ya dakatar da shi. Daga nan kuma Shehu ya bayar da kabilar Lala da Yungur da kuma Hona ga Modibbo Adama na Adamawa. Daga baya Buba Yero da dan uwansa sun hada hannu da kuma karfi da karfe wajen ci gaba da Jihadi, inda suka ci kabilar Fali da yaki, bayan an yi gwajin kwanji da kuma dauki-ba-dadi a garin Burmi (wanda ake kiran yakin da suna Yakin Burmi na 1). Sun shiga garin Kororofa babban birnin masarautar Jukun, inda a nan Buba Yero ya dora lura da wajen a hannun Hammaruwa, sakamakon zargin da Buba Yero ya yi na cewa za su iya daukar fansa. Daga nan sai Buba Yero ya zauna a wani waje da ake kira Gumbol Ribadu, wanda yanzu yake karkashin masarautar Nafada, a cikin shekarar 1814. Ya zauna har tsawon shekara 7. Daga nan ya koma yamma da Dukku, aka rada wa garin suna Gombe-Abba, wanda har yanzu ana kiran garin da haka. Daga nan Buba Yero ya aiki Magajin Garin Gombe-Abba, da ya nemo masa wajen da zai yi dadin zama. Bayan ya fita nema ne ya samo wani waje kusa da wani tsauni da yake yamma da Dukku, nisan wajen daga Dukku Mil 19 ne. A nan Buba Yero ya gina gida kusa da wata bishiyar kuka da ‘yan kabilar Bolewa masu bauta mata ke kiran ta da Gombe-Memositi. Wasu daga cikin Bolewa sun sauko daga tsaunikansu, suka kuma zauna tare da Fulani (su Buba Yero), daga nan kuma aka fara kiran garin da Guru-Gombe-Memositi. Ana cikin haka kuma sai auratayya ta shiga tsakanin Fulani da Bolewa da kuma Fulani da Terawan Gwani wanda aka samesu a inda Gombe take yanzu a bangaren gabas da kabilal waja. Da tafiya ta yi tafiya, sai suka fara kiran garin da suna Gombe. Bayan an gina garin Gombe ne, sai kuma ya ci gaba da Jihadinsa, inda da shi da dakarunsa, suka karkata gami da sa gabansu arewa. A karshe suka hadu da dakarun Shehu dan Fodiyo, sannan suka tunkari birnin Ngazargamu (babban birnin masarautar Barno), wanda sun yi hakan ne bayan sun yi galaba a garin Darazo da kuma Logo. Bayan wannan lokacin ne, sai Buba Yero ya samu sabani da dan uwansa Hammaruwa (sarkin Muri 1883), wanda hakan ne ya zama ummul’aba’isin da al’ummar Jalingo suka mika kukansu ga Shehu kan a ba su ‘yancin kansu daga kasar Gombe. Shehu ya karbi kukansu, ya kuma share musu hawaye, inda ya ce da su cikin‘Kirdi’ (Fulfulde), cewa ya ba su ‘yanci, amma har yanzu sun kasa karbar tutar Jihadi, wannan dalilin ne ya sa har yanzu ake kiran fulanin Jalingo da sunan‘Fulani-Kiri’. Buba Yero ya mutu a shekarar 1841. Buba Yero bai yi mulki ba, ya dai kafa masarautar Gombe ne. Bayan ya rasu ne, aka fara mulkin sarauta, wanda ake kiran sarki da ‘Modibbo Gombe’. Kamar yadda na yi bayani a baya cewa, Buba Yero ya auri Zulai ‘yar gidan sarkin Katsina, wanda a kan hanyar sa ta dawowa ne, aka haifa masa Sulaimanu a wani waje da ake kira Shani karkashin ikon Biu, wani gari a masarautar Barno. Sulaimanu ne ya zama sarkin Gombe na farko. Bayan Buba Yero ya bar garin Shani ya koma Gulani ne, matarsa ta biyu Hauwa (‘Yar sarkin Daura), ta haifa masa da namiji, wanda aka sanyawa suna Muhammadu kwairanga, wanda kuma shi ne ya zama sarkin Gombe na biyu. Wannan shi ne dalilin da ya sa ake kiran masarautar Gombe da ‘Shanima Gulanima Fulbe Janafulu’. YAkIN BURMI NA BIYU (2 ga watan Jimada Akir,1320 H daidai da 27-Juli, 1903) Wannan yakin yana da matukar mahimmanci a tarihin kafuwar garin Gombe, kasancewar bayan yakin ne garin Gombe ya hau wata turba har zuwa yau. Sai dai kafin nan bari na dan yi baya da mai karatu. A zamanin sarkin Gombe na shida, wato Umaru (1899-1922), an samu hauhawar kaurar mutane zuwa Gombe, ciki har da korarru da tubabbun sarakunan Arewa, wadanda Nasara masu jajayen kunnuwa suka hambarar. Wadanda suka hada da: sarkin Misau Ahmadu na II (1900-1902) da sarkin Keffi Magaji dan Musa da sarkin Malle Basiru da sarkin Bida da dai sauran masu fada a ji da kuma talakawan da suka sha alwashin ba za su zauna karkashin mulkin Nasara ba. Wadannan sarakuna da kuma sauran mutane sun yi kaura daga garuruwa irin su Kano da Gombe da Bauci da Misau da Bida da sauransu. Sun ce ba za su zauna karkashin gwamnatin Sa Fredrick Lugard ba. Bayan sojojin Nasara a karkashin Lugard sun ci karfin Kano da Hadejiya ne, sai suka tattaro hankalinsu garin Gombe, kasancewar sun samu labarin kusan dukkan tubabbu da korarrun sarakuna sun hadu a garin Burmi. Kamar yadda ruwa ba ya tsami a banza haka Nasara ya san tun da wadannan sarakuna suka taru a waje daya, to sun san ko ba dade, ko ba jima komai zai iya faruwa. Bugu da kari ga Sultan Attahiru ma na garin Burmi. Kuma dama Sultan Attahiru ya samu labarin Faransawa suna jiran sa a Tafkin Chadi, kasancewar ita ce hanyar da yake bi, idan zai je aikin Hajji ko Ummara ke nan. Wani zafi-a-kan-zafi kuma shi ne, ga Fadel-Allah (dan gidan Rabeh) da mutanensa sunyi sansaninsu a arewa da Gwani da kudancin Burmi . Kasancewar garin Burmi ne da yawancin wadanda suka yi Jihadi suke, sai suka yi ittifakin ko da sama da kasa za su hadu, to sun shirya kare Burmi. Wannan shi ne dalilin da Sultan Attahiru ya shirya wata tawaga ta malamai da sojojin yaki da aka sanya wa suna ‘Ferol’. A ranar 27 ga watan Yulin 1903, kafin Manjo F.C Marsh ya iso garin Burmi, ya bude barikin soja a Gwani yamma da kogi kusa da Nafada sannan ya yi sansaninsa a Burmi kusa da shiga garin. Bayan ya yi kwanaki uku ne, sai kazamin yaki ya barke a wajen, inda aka yi ta karon-battar-karfe, fito-na-fito da kuma dauki-ba-dadi. Jinin mayaka sun zuba, inda a karshe sojojin Nasarawa suka yi galaba. Sai dai kuma Sultan Attahiru da kuma Manjo F. C Marsh duka sun rasa rayukansu a yakin da aka yi a garin Burmi. Wanda har a yanzu kuma kaburburansu suna garin na Burmi. A cikin shekarar 1913 Hedikwatar Gombe ta tashi daga garin Gombe zuwa Nafada, tare da sauran sojojin da ke Gwani zuwa Nafada wanda a cewar Nasarawa Nafada ta fi saukin zuwa daga manyan garuruwan Arewa irin su Kano da Bauci da Maiduguri da sauransu. Har ila yau a wannan shekarar aka girke sojoji masu lura da shige-da-fice a kan iyaka. Sarkin Gombe Umaru ya halarci wani hawan daba da aka yi a Kano, lokacin da sarki Edward na III da ke kasar Ingila ya kawo ziyara Kano. Bayan sarki Umaru ya dawo daga Kano ne, ya sake zabar wani gari da ake kira Doma karkashin Akko. Inda a shekarar 1919 aka sake rada wa garin suna Gombe-Doma. A kuma wannan shekarar ce aka mayar da Gombe-Doma zuwa masarautar Bauci, sannan aka rage mata dagatai zuwa 3, wanda a da take da 13. Daga nan kuma sai aka dawo garin Gombe na yanzu. A karshe ta zama karamar hukuma, a karshen-karshe kuma cikin shekarar 1996 masarautar Gombe ta samu jiha.


about a year agoEditDeleteTHE HISTORY OF A SLEEPING LION (GWANI ) IN NORTHERN NIGERIA.

the history of a sleeping lion (GWANI HEAD OF NYIMALTI FROM YEMEN ) in northern Nigeria i,When eventually Gombe was not made a province, it was compensated with the return to Gombe of the enclave(emirate) of Gwani comprising of Hinna,shinga and Wade and some villages..

The Nymalti were in the Gombe region long before the advent of the Fulani jihad, and for many years wandered through the area in one family with three headship of hunters, fishers and farmers known as Bima enclave comprising Gwani, Wade and Hinna that setup their towns at Bima hills.

Until the later harried by raids from the fulani that forced them to self-defence and being afraid where divided into family in difference location.only Gwani remains at its place by the river-bed of the Bima hill who was noted to be farmers and fishers. Wade, Shinga and Wuyo who were farmers move to north-east base of the Bima hills.

Geographic features & Photographs around Gwani, in Nigeria (general), Nigeria



Populated Place; GWANI and its , towns, villages, or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work under gwani enclave(emirate) in 1886.

Stream; a body of running water moving to a lower level in a channel on land.

Hills; rounded elevations of limited extent rising above the surrounding land with local relief of less than 300m.


Wikipedia entries close to Gwani


Gwani, GOMBE ,Nigeria Page

World:Nigeria:(( East-Central State )) about a year agoEditDeleteZOGALE GANJI –ANOTHER NAME OF MORINGA OLEIFERA IN HAUSA Moringa Oleifera: A treatment for Diabetes

Diabetes is a disease that is characterized by problems involving the hormone insulin. In healthy people, the pancreas releases insulin; insulin then works to help the body use and store the fat and sugar that is derived from the food that people eat. With diabetes, insulin can be compromised in a couple of different ways. In some cases, the pancreas doesn't produce any insulin at all. Other times, the body does not react in the right way to insulin - this is known as "insulin resistance." Finally, diabetes is sometimes characterized by a pancreas that produces an insufficient volume of insulin. The Two Types of DiabetesIt's important to understand that diabetes is a disease that has no cure. Once a person develops diabetes, they will suffer from the condition for the rest of their life. Although diabetes may be triggered by a variety of different phenomena involving the pancreas and insulin production - or lack thereof - it can also be divided into two distinct types.

Type 1 Diabetes - Type 1 diabetes typically first arises in people under the age of 20, although it can happen at any age. Insulin-producing cells - known as beta cells - in the pancreas are completely destroyed by the body's immune system. In turn, the pancreas can no longer produce any insulin and insulin injections must be administered.

Type 2 Diabetes - With type 2 diabetes, a person's pancreas still produces insulin; the problem is that it either doesn't create enough insulin, or the person's body is resistant to the insulin that is produced. Type 2 diabetes commonly occurs in obese and overweight individuals - usually over the age of 40 - and is sometimes called "adult onset diabetes." Managing DiabetesThere is no cure for diabetes. However, there are several ways to manage the condition in order to keep insulin at the proper level. There are several different techniques and strategies for managing diabetes. Some of them include:

  • carefully monitoring one's diet in order to keep blood sugar levels in check;
  • using insulin injections as needed to maintain optimal levels in those whose bodies don't produce the hormone;
  • keeping a close eye on blood sugar levels by using special kits that measure insulin and sugar in the blood; and
  • following an exercise routine in order to keep blood pressure levels in check.

Moringa Oleifera: A Natural Treatment for DiabetesAs with any disease or condition, doctors and researchers are constantly seeking new ways to treat and manage diabetes. People are more concerned about using harsh, synthetic medications than ever before, which is what makes the promise of a tree called Moringa Oleifera all the more exciting. Moringa Oleifera is a tree that is originally native to India, but is now grown across the globe. As it happens, people in many developing countries - particular in Africa - have been using Moringa Oleifera to treat and manage the symptoms of diabetes for years.

Why does Moringa Oleifera hold so much promise for those who suffer from diabetes?

Primarily because of its many amazing, natural benefits. Moringa Oleifera has been shown to naturally boost the immune system, which usually becomes compromised in those who suffer from type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Moringa Oleifera has also been shown to possess many key anti-inflammatory benefits; diabetes often causes circulatory problems which can be managed through anti-inflammatory supplements. There are no negative side effects associated with Moringa Oleifera use, meaning that it is a safe, natural way for people to manage their blood sugarand care for their diabetes symptoms. It's just one more option for the many people who have to cope with this serious condition Relief for Gastric Ulcers Through the Use of Moringa Leaf SupplementsGastric ulcers are one of the most painful and debilitating forms of digestive system disorders. Also known as peptic ulcers, these inflammations and irritations of the stomach wall can cause painful symptoms and serious complications in affected individuals. The most common signs of gastric ulcer include pain before or after eating, heartburn, nausea, bloating and vomiting blood. In serious or advanced cases gastric ulcers can lead to perforation of the stomach wall that can in turn lead to acute peritonitis, a potentially life-threatening condition. The bleeding that usually occurs with gastric ulcers can cause significant blood loss that can create a health risk even in the absence of other complicating factors.

Causes of gastric ulcer Most cases of gastric ulcer are caused by a breakdown in the immune system that allows Helicobacter pylori bacteria to infect the stomach, leading to severe inflammation and breaks in the tissue lining the stomach walls. Essentially the buildup of these bacteria within the stomach causes interference with the normal production and regulation of gastric acids, creating excessive acid that eats away at the stomach wall lining over time. Other contributing factors include changes in the blood chemistry that affect the acid resistance of the stomach, dietary choices, drinking and smoking and cancerous growths in the stomach. Stress can also cause gastric ulcers, either alone or in combination with the other factors.

Diagnosis Gastric ulcers are usually diagnosed based on the patient’s reported symptoms. In some cases, however, specialized X-ray and scanning procedures are necessary in order to ascertain the presence of gastric ulcers. These diagnostic aids include barium contrast X-rays and endoscopic assessment. While some physicians perform tests to detect the presence of Helicobacter pylori in the bloodstream, this is usually less than effective because the tests cannot distinguish between past build-ups and current conditions within the body. Breath tests, biopsies and stool samples can all be used to verify a diagnosis of gastric ulcer depending on the patient and the severity of the condition.

Complications of gastric ulcers Left untreated, gastric ulcers typically progress and worsen. This typically leads to heavier bleeding that can cause significant issues due to blood loss and drainage into the stomach cavity. Major scarring can occur as well as perforation of the stomach wall and the attendant peritonitis that can cause even more serious infections and potentially could cause death in some vulnerable patients.

Moringa oleifera and ulcers The Moringa oleifera plant offers significant benefits to those suffering from gastric ulcers. A number of medical studies have identified the positive effects of moringa leaves in treating these dangerous digestive tract disorders; for example, a study entitled Phytochemical Screening and Antiulcerogenic Effect of Moringa Oleifera Aqueous Leaf Extract and published in 2006 in the African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines demonstrated the effectiveness of moringa leaves in relieving the symptoms and improving the prognosis of laboratory rats suffering from gastric ulcerations. The mechanism by which moringa leaf extract heals these ulcers is not fully understood. The supplements may work in a number of ways including reducing the inflammation caused by an excessive build-up of Helicobacter pylori, increasing capillary resistance to these bacteria and increasing the patient’s exposure to proven antioxidants that can eliminate free radicals in the system and improve the overall health of the individual.

Conclusions The use of moringa leaves in treating ulcers and digestive tract orders has long been a staple element in the Ayurvedic medical tradition of India. With further research into the beneficial effects of moringa leaf extracts for patients, it is expected that these traditional medical uses will be validated for the modern medical community and that moringa supplements will be incorporated into the treatment regimen for patients suffering from this painful and dangerous digestive tract condition

Moringa: An Ally in Boosting Immune System Response The immune system is the body’s first and last line of defense against pathogens and disease; without a well functioning immune system, even the most innocuous bacterial and viral infections could overwhelm physical systems and lead to serious illness or even death. In healthy individuals, the immune system consists of several different layers of protection including the physical barrier of the skin, the innate immune response that reacts to any pathogenic intrusion immediately, and the more specialized adaptive immune response.

Components of the immune systemThe adaptive immune response is designed to combat specific pathogens; typically, specialized white blood cells called lymphocytes attack the infection or intrusion. The body produces three types of lymphocytes, known as B cells, T cells and natural killer or NK cells. T cells and B cells are tasked with identifying and responding to specific threats to the body. This process is called antigen representation and allows the cells to produce specific responses to pathogens that the body has previously encountered. NK cells use a slightly different process and can defend against some pathogens to which the individual may not previously have exposed

Identifying the threats Healthy immune systems are necessary in order to fend off disease and protect the body against toxins and pathogens. The immune system also reacts to mutations and cancerous growths within the body, typically attacking these cells with cytotoxic granules that contain powerful cell-killing enzymes. In all these cases, the value of the immune system depends on its ability to distinguish between the organism’s own cellular structures and those of external pathogens. One way in which this is achieved is through immunological memory. Vaccinations are effective due to this ability of the immune system to remember and maintain active defenses against previously encountered bacteria and viruses, essentially destroying these pathogens before they can gain a foothold in the body.

Disorders of the immune systemPerhaps the best known disorder of the immune system is AIDS, but a number of other physical conditions can cause weakening of the immune system that can potentially lead to additional complications. Poor nutrition can cause depressed immune system responses, as can alcoholism and drug abuse. Young children and the elderly are also vulnerable due to a reduced immune capacity and often are more prone to contracting illnesses during these stages of life. A number of natural and pharmaceutical substances are used to boost the body’s ability to fight off disease. The Moringa oleifera plant shows outstanding promise in this regard with significant beneficial effects on the immune processes within the body; a study published in 2007 in the scientific journal Food Chemistry showed that moringa leaves contain powerful antioxidants that can supplement and support the body’s own natural immune functions.

The antioxidant properties of moringa leaves allow the immune system to fight off infections and cancers more effectively, providing the body with a secondary line of defense against pathogens and offering hope to those suffering from reduced immunity due to illness, congenital disorders and other factors. Moringa


Moringa Leaf The leaves of the Moringa oleifera plant have been used as food and in medicinal preparations for centuries. Modern medical research also bears out the value of these versatile leaves, making them a valuable natural resource for a wide range of uses in the medical and nutritional field. Because the Moringa plant can be grown in climates where other food plants might struggle, including semi-arid and tropical areas, its leaves can serve as a nutritional supplement to people in regions where naturally occurring food sources are scarce. The Moringa plant can also survive on very little water; definite advantages in many areas where desertification and climate change are creating widespread malnutrition among the inhabitants.

Nutritional value Moringa leaves are especially useful in combating hunger since they can be dried and transported easily and provide much needed protein and Vitamin C, along with numerous other nutrients, vitamins and minerals. The leaves are particularly useful for infants, young children and nursing mothers, since they contain significant amounts of calcium, proteins and other vital elements for growth and healthy development. Where fresh Moringa leaves are available, they are typically cooked in a similar way to spinach or other greens, and served as a side dish with other foods or as a nutritive main course. They can also be used raw as a salad green and combined with other leafy vegetables or grains. Dried leaves are usually sprinkled on other foods to increase their nutritional value or taken in supplement form or in a steeped tea, though the latter may lose some of the food value if the leaves are not also consumed with the drink.

Traditional Ayurvedic uses for the moringa leaf Ayurveda is the most commonly practiced form of traditional medicine in India. Practitioners of Ayurvedic medicine incorporate the Moringa leaf into many of their healing techniques.

The moringa leaf has been used in Ayurveda to treat:

  • Gastrointestinal upsets including ulcers and diarrhea
  • Headache
  • Inflammation
  • Anemia
  • Fever
  • Minor respiratory difficulties
  • Eye infections
  • Poor nutrition
  • Bronchitis
  • Inner ear infections
  • Skin infections when used as a topical application

Modern medical uses A number of peer-reviewed research studies provide support for the use of Moringa leaves in therapeutic applications. The Moringa leaf contains powerful antioxidants that have proven their effectiveness against cancer cells in the laboratory environment; additionally, Moringa leaves increase milk production and the nutritional value of the milk in nursing mothers. Moringa leaves are also used therapeutically to treat high blood pressure with good results.

Other uses for moringa leavesMoringa leaves have been used as food for stock animals and even in fishery applications in order to provide more nutrition. The high protein content of the Moringa leaf helps animals to grow more quickly, and Moringa leaves are far cheaper than most other sources of protein for fish and farm animals. Moringa leaves have also shown great promise in enhancing the growth of other plants; an extract of the leaves diluted in ethanol can increase the sturdiness of the plant as well as the number and size of the fruit produced, enhancing the overall harvest and improving the productivity of agricultural endeavors.

The potential value of Moringa leaves in diet and agriculture cannot be overestimated. The leaves of the Moringa plant offer a wide range of health and nutritional benefits while providing solid results for a number of other agricultural and livestock activities.

Moringa Oleifera Leaves Medicinal uses:Antimicrobial / Biocidal

Bacterial

Infection

Urinary Tract Infection

Viral

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)

Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1)

HIV-AIDS

Parasites

Helminths

Trypanosomes

Other / Not Attributed to a Specific

Bronchitis

External Sores/Ulcers

Fever

Hepatic

Fever

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GWANI DISTRICT AND GOMBE IN THE NORTHERN NIGERIA AND TRANSFER FROM GOMBE TO PROVINCE TO BORNO

In establishing their own type of local government from 1902 onwards, the British undertook the following steps:



(i) They created homologous Districts by merging together all the villages within a particular area, thus dividing up the Emirate.



(ii) They based authority on territory and subordinated everyone within a given area to the same official. This official was called a District Head.



(iii) They also appointed a single tax-gathering authority (the District-Head) in each given area (i.e. District), thereby drastically reducing the levels in the tax-gathering hierarchy.



Thus, the British integrated tax-collection and administration. In undertaking these measures the British not only greatly reduced the number of the 19th century participants in the political system but also the number of participating units–ethnicities, families and clans.



Immediately the British completed the conquest of the capitals of the Emirates of the Sokoto caliphate (including Sokoto itself) and even while the pacification of the towns and villages in the Emirates was still going on, the British began to establish their administrative control over the former Caliphate area. The process Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 150 involved the creation of different levels of administrative structures.

The first major administrative step was the grouping of Emirates into a number of provinces. These provinces, including Borno and many other areas that did not fall under the Caliphate, were named the Northern Provinces.



Secondly, each of the Provinces was broken into Divisions, and the headquarters of the Emirate within each Division became the headquarters of the Divisions. Thirdly, the various Divisions were, for effective administrative control, broken into homologous Districts. However, during the first two decades of colonial rule, the British created in most of the Emirate what they referred to as‘Sub-Districts’ with the aim, principally of Phasing-out the numerous title-holders, Kofofi, Jakadu and slave officials. By the 1920°s in Gombe, for example, most, if not all the Sub-districts had been phased-out and what were left were what were called “Main Districts”.



Lastly, in each Main District there were villages that were grouped together. Each village was regarded as an administrative unit and had a village head. Each large village or town was also divided into smaller administrative units called wards.

The following were the titles of the various officials who were in-charge of these levels of government; the British, of cause were first and foremost the ultimate authority.



At the Regional level the British instituted the office of High Commissioner, later known as Lt. Governor. The Sultan (formerly Amir al-Mu’minin or Caliph) of Sokoto, who in the 19th century had been the overall authority for the whole of the Caliphate, was reduced to the position of an Emir even though the British still, nominally, regarded him as the highest indigenous authority within the Indirect Rule System.

At the Provincial level, the colonial government instituted the office of Resident, while a first class Emir (so termed by the British) in a given Province, and was regarded by the British as the highest indigenous authority.

At the Divisional level within each Province, the British placed a Divisional Officer2 (popularly called a D.O.), while an Emir of an Emirate within a Division was the highest indigenous authority. It is necessary to point out here that, as far as the colonial government was concerned, the divisional40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 151 level was the lowest of posting of the colonial political or administrative officers.

The remaining levels of administration had indigenous officers as their authorities. Thus, in the various Districts (which the British, of course, had created) that formed each Division, the colonial government appointed District Heads. These in turn had under them officials termed village Heads.

Lastly came ward heads that were in charge of the smallest administrative units. The various indigenous authorities from the Emir to the Ward Head while they were known by official titles also had traditional titles, which varied (and still vary) from one Emirate to another and from one locality to another within a given Emirate.

Having discussed the various levels of administration established by the Emirate, we wish to point out that this paper is concerned with one particular level, that is the creation by the British of the District Head system in Gombe from 1902–1920.

Gwani is the only district of Tera tribes among the territorial reorganisation of northern Nigeria; towards the end of 1925 the colonial state began a major regional reorganisation of a greater depth beyond what had been attempted thus far.



The plan for reorganisation was contained in a proposal from the then Lieutenant Governor of the Northern Region to the Secretary of Colonies.16 This reorganisation affected Kano, Bornu, Bauchi, Plateau, Yola, Munshi (Benue), Kabba, Zaria and Niger provinces.



Katsina and Katagum divisions were excised from the Kano Province, leaving the Kano emirate with two divisions – Kano itself and another consisting of Hadejia, Gumel, Kazaure and Daura emirates. Excised from Kano, Katagum division was merged with Bauchi province.



The Muri province that included mandated areas in the Cameroons was partitioned, a large chunk of which was then merged with the Yola province. The Ibi division that was part of the reconstituted Muri province, the Lafia emirate and the Keffi division of the Nassarawa province were brought under the Munshi province.



With this measure, Nassarawa province ceased to exist. Similarly, the Shendam division in the Muri province was merged with the Plateau province.17 Finally the Idah division of the Munshi province was merged with the Kabba province.






These were the major territorial reorganisations.

The state kept making minor reorganisations and adjustments within this period and beyond.



Some of these included the re-transfer of the Shani "enclave" from the Shelleng division of the Yola province to the Biu division of the Bornu province; the re-transfer of the Gwani "enclave" from the Akko district of the Gombe division in Bauchi province to the Tera district of the Biu division in Bornu province;



the transfer of Wase from the Shendam division of the Muri province to the Bauchi emirate of the Bauchi province as a separate district under the emir of Bauchi; and the transfer of the Kentu district of the Cameroons’ Southern province to a newly created Gashaka division of the Yola province.



The twenty carriers whom I laid sent for to Nafada, happily arrived at Deba Habe on the day of our return, and next morning we left early for Gwani, accompanied for a short distance by the king and a number of the chiefs of Deba Habe.

We rested at Difa, a small well-walled village in the midst of a clearing in the bush, and then moved northward in full view of the western slope of the Bima hills.

Gongola and then across the sandy river-bed to the walls of Gwani .the town is built at the base of the northern slope of the Bima hills, to the summit of which fled many of the fanatical defenders of Burmi after the captures of their stronghold. In order to hunt them down, Gwani for a time was made the military headquarters on the gongola, with a fort, barracks, and parade ground, now deserted in favour of Nafada, higher up the river.



I camped under a shady tree close to the grass –grown parade ground and the ruins of the fort, and next morning moved north-east ward along the base of the hills to Wadi (Wade).Bima hills is a wide gigantic rock form in a way that express reality and elegance .The rock looks the same from any angle one looks at it



The Bima hills, with the three Tera towns of Gwani, Wadi and Gunna (Hinna) form a detached portion of Bauchi province, known as the Bima enclave, and

administered from Gombe district headquarters .while all the rest of the country to the east of the Gongola and far as south as Gasi included in the province of Bornu.



When eventually Gombe was not made a province, it was compensated with the return to Gombe of the enclave of Gwani comprising of Gwani, Hinna and Wade.



The Nymalti were in the Gombe region long before the advent of the Fulani jihad, and for many years wandered through the area in one family with three headship of hunters, fishers and farmers known as Bima enclave comprising Gwani, Wade and Hinna that setup their towns at Bima hills.

Until the later harried by raids from the fulani that forced them to self-defence and being afraid where divided into family in difference location. Gwani remains at the river-bed of the Bima hill who was noted to be farmers and fishers. Wade, Shinga and Wuyo who were farmers move to north-east base of the Bima hills.

Geographic features & Photographs around Gwani, in Nigeria (general), Nigeria



Populated Place; a city, town, village, or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work.

Stream; a body of running water moving to a lower level in a channel on land.

Hills; rounded elevations of limited extent rising above the surrounding land with local relief of less than 300m.


Wikipedia entries close to Gwani





What is this world index all about?

Gwani, Nigeria PageWorld:Nigeria:(( East-Central State ))

Latitude

10.4167

Longitude

11.5000

Altitude (feet)

925

Lat (DMS)

10° 25' 0N

Long (DMS)

11° 30' 0E

Altitude (meters)

281

Time zone (est)

Approximate population for 7 km radius from this point: 14602

Google links for Gwani

Google links for Gwani, Nigeria

Nearby Cities and Towns

West

North

East

South

Difa (5.8 nm) Deba Fulani (7.0 nm) Jurara (7.7 nm)

Shinga (4.2 nm)

Kalo (3.6 nm) Gadam (4.9 nm) Nahantsi (5.8 nm) Maisaje (6.3 nm) Maidawa (7.7 nm)

Wuratale (5.8 nm) Mallam Bapa (5.8 nm) Hinna (6.1 nm) Wuradole (6.7 nm) Dalla (6.7 nm) Kwal (7.0 nm) Ungwa Canteen (7.1 nm) Kerma (7.6 nm) Maigana (7.8 nm) Dadin Kowa (8.0 nm) Nearby Airports Code

IATA

Kind

Name

City

Distance

Bearing

Airlines

FR4177

Small

BAJOGA NORTHEAST

Bajoga

30 nm N

0

FR33043

Medium

Gombe Lawanti International Airport

Gombe

36 nm W

262

DNYO

YOL

Medium

YOLA

Yola

88 nm S

141

(one of Swiftair or Arik Air)

Nearby references in Wikipedia:

Distance

Title

13.8 nm

SW

Deba Habe

21.2 nm

W

Gombe, Nigeria

22.1 nm

SW

Gombe State

22.2 nm

W

Abubakar Umar Memorial Stadium




While Lubo, Difa, Kinafa, Kwadon and Liji relocated to the west-side of the river and established their towns. The particular group that moved to south-south base of the hill comprises Hinna, Kurba, Zambuk, Kwalli and Deba who were professional hunters.

Tera is the Hausa and English name for the Nyimatli [nimaáli] people as they call themselves, and their language. The Nyimalti communities lie principally in the North and East of present-day Gombe State and in the adjoining area of Borno State in north-eastern Nigeria.

The Tera towns includes Gwani,Shinga,Wade,Hinna,Zambuk,Difa,Lubo,Kwadon,Kurba,Liji,Deba,Kalshingi,Doho,Kinafa,Dukul,Lafia all in Yamaltu-Deba Local Government Area except Kalshingi in Akko local in the present Gombe state, the Tera tribes in Borno state are Balbiya,Wuyo,Shani,Koya-Tera now call Koya-Kusar all Bayo Local Government Area of Borno state.

The Hausa languages have become their local lingua franca; increasing numbers are trilingual as the result of the growing importance of English in commerce and education.

In the 19th century, all the Emirates and their Emirs were regarded as equal by Sokoto however small or large, wealthy or poor; there was therefore no ranking of Emirs. However, under the British, the Emir of Bauchi was classified as “First Class Emir”.7 Thence, he was the paramount indigenous authority in the Province.



The Emir of Gombe was categorized as Second Class and was not made a First Class Emir until 1953, though even after that, he remained subordinate to the Emir of Bauchi by virtue of the Provincial grouping, under British Northern Nigeria.

The ostensible reason for the grading of Emirs by the British was in general based on tax revenue considerations and population of the Emirates that formed a Province, although this general policy was not always strictly observed.



In August, 1903 (after the defeat of Attahiru I in July of the same year at Bormi) Gombe Emirate was placed under the political charge of Mr. C.L. Temple, Resident, (stationed at Bauchi), and was incorporated into Bauchi Province.8 In October, 1904, Frederick Lugard, the Lt. Governor of the Northern Provinces, visited the Emirate on his way to Borno. He passed through Gombe-Abba to Nafada and then proceeded to Gujba (in Borno).



It is most likely that it was at the time of this visit by Lugard that the British fixed the Emirate’s boundaries with Borno and Yola Provinces. The Gongola River was roughly taken, as its Northern Boundary,9 and most of the areas on the left bank of the river (from Nafada-east and Southeast) were put in Borno and Yola Provinces.

Thus, the Tera Villages (Gwani, Shinga, Wade, Hina etc), which, though they had not been incorporated into Gombe Emirate in the 19th century (they had actually paid some nominal allegiance to Gombe and later Bormi) were merged with Borno province.

But Bauchi Emirate itself did not40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 153 Province. Areas like Shani, Gulani and so on were similarly not incorporated.

It is necessary to state here that all the Tera areas (such as Gwani, Shinga, Wade and Hina) on the left bank of the river Gongola, continued to be shifted to and from between Biu and Gombe Divisions until 1936 when they finally remained as a part of Gombe.



For example, between 1902- 1906/7, the areas were put under Gujba in Borno Province. In 1907/8, the areas were returned to Bauchi Province and placed under Gombe Emirate. Then during the 1926 major boundary adjustments in Northern Nigeria, the Gongola River was again taken as the boundary between Biu and Gombe and so the areas were put under Biu division (Borno Province). Ten years later (in 1936), the areas were finally returned to Gombe.



In 1906, Gombe Emirate, with the Tangale and Waja, Tula, Awok, Dadiya and Cham areas were formed into an administrative division called Gombe Division. Later, Tula, Ture, Tangaltong and Cham Districts were constituted out of these that had been merged with Gombe Emirates as a Division.



Between 1902–1919, Nafada was the British Military Station and also served as a European trading centre. In fact it was also the Headquarters of the British Colonial Political Officer (the D.O.) in the Emirate. For two years after Attahiru I’s battle with the British at Bormi (July, 1903), the British stationed a Military detachment at Gwani, probably to ward-off potential revolt from those who continued to flock around Gwani–Bima Hill area, an area very close to Bormi.



Gombe-Abba remained the Emirate’s administrative headquarters from 1902–1914 when the Emir Umaru was moved to Nafada. In 1919, the colonial government finally moved the headquarters of the Emirate to Doma and then raised it Gombe-Doma, which has remained the capital to data. The former 19th century capital, Gombe-Abba, since then has remained just a village headquarters!



In official British administrative nomenclature, Gombe Emirate, like all other Emirates of Northern Nigeria, was designated a “Native Authority” (N.A). Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 154 the Evolution of the District Head System 1902-1920

The following were the officials the British found holding office in 1902 and whom they (the British) categorized into two broad divisions according to whether an official was in-charge of many or few towns and villages. Table 1 illustrates the categories

40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 161 These was Jillahi (including Ribadu), Toungo and Dukul Districts. These Districts were then placed under Turaki, Sarkin Magi, and Madawaki respectively as District Heads. Bage, which was before the coming of the British attached to the Shettima, was now constituted into a District and Sarkin Bage Bubakari was appointed as its District Head.



It can be observed here that during this early period of the British drive towards homologous Districts in Gombe, many, if not most of the Districts created, were in fact single towns and in some cases, at best, towns together with their outlying farmlands and hamlets.



In the Eastern parts of the Emirate, the Tera areas East of the Gongola River, which were put under Biu–Borno Province in 1904 and transferred to Gombe in 1906, were amalgamated into a District with the Sarkin Gwani as the District Head.

As for the Tera, West of the river, such as Deba, Lubo, and Zambuk and so on, together with Akko and Pindiga and other Jukun Villages, they were made into a District with the Galadiman Akko as the District Head. The plain Waja areas were also made into a District and the Sarkin Yaki appointed as the District Head.



As for Central Gombe, the predominantly Bolewa towns of Gadam, Bojude, Kafarati and Kom-Fellata were made into a District under the Santurakias District Head. The towns north of the Gongola Lafia, Zauna, and Malala were made into Malala District and the Magajin Gari was appointed District Head.



Between 1908 and 1911, the entire District mentioned above underwent some re-organization, and a number of those appointed District Heads by the British lost their positions. The slave–officials in particular were all dispensed with.

The first District–Head and Emirate title–holder to lose his position was the Ajiya who was relieved of his post. Kalam, which was his main area, was merged with the Dukku District. Biri and Jillahi Districts and the towns of Wawa, Beledigga, and Keffiwol were formed into one District and put under Yerima Jalo.



In 1908 the Waja district was taken away from the Pre–colonial Sarkin Yaki family. This was brought about by a proposal made by the D.O. in December, 1907 in which it was reported that “the Sarkin Yaki, placed in-charge of the Waja District, has not hitherto proved himself capable of doing his work and it was Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 162 proposed, the following year, to substitute for him the Yerima Jalo”

However, in 1903 the District was given not to Yerima–Jalo, but to Musa a son of the Late Emir Kwairanga by a Waja mother, who subsequently, acquired the title of Sarkin Yaki as well.

This was not all happened to the former Sarkin Yaki family Kunde, the family’s slave–farm was merged into the Dukku District. Dabewo, the headquarters of Sarkin Dabe, was also merged with Dukku, while the Sarkin Dabe was required to take charge of Gombe Abba town and later Hashidu across the Gongola on the left bank. By the end of the colonial period, Hashidu had been placed under Darazo (in Bauchi).

By 1912, the British had been able to form the following homologous Districts in Gombe Emirate.36

Table 2: Districts and their Heads as formed by the British by 1912 S/N

Districts

Districts Head

Identification



1.



Dukku

Sarkin–Dukku

Pullo–Geno



2.



Malala

Magani–Gari

Pullo–Royal Family



3.



Gombe–Abba

Pullo–Dabe

Sarkin -Dabe



4.



Gadam

Santuraki

Pullo–Royal Family



5.



Nafada

Sarkin–Nafada

Pullo



6.



Biri And Jillahi

Yerima

Pullo–Royal Family



7.



Bage

Sarkin–Bage

Bolewa



8.



Toungo

Sarkin–Magi

Pullo–Magi



9.



Dukul

Madawaki

Pullo–Tara



10.



Gwani

Sarkin–Gwani

Tera



11.



Akko

Galadiman–Akko

Pullo–Gona



12.



Waja

Sarkin–Yaki

Pullo–Royal Family






This simply shows that the British tried to accommodate of social class which they used as collaborators and they were willing to pay the cost of so–doing, even though this compromised their re-organization policy.



The amalgamation was defended by the Divisional Officer in Gombe as follows:

This amalgamation was not planned arbitrarily but based on good reason. In the first place Burunde, Galadiman Akko, Haruna Sarkin Dukku and Yerima Jalo had proved themselves by far the most efficient Headmen.

The quotation above mentioned that the Headmen were efficient. The question which should be asked is: efficient in doing what? Presumably in collecting taxes and turning them over to the treasury–since these were the things the British were concerned about.



The D.O. in addition to commenting on the District Head also tried to rationalize the composition of the new Districts. Concerning Dukku District, he wrote that:



Dukku District as now formed, represents (roughly speaking) the old Kalam Kingdom (sic) in its entirety, and, on the conquest of the Kalam Bolewa by Buba–Yero, their decadence and the continuous occupation by the Dukku Fulani of the greater part of their territory, may be fairly based on a claim by the present Sarkin–Dukku, Lineal descendant of Ardo Abdu, full and elder brother of Kottokore, to have supplanted the Bolewa dynasty.39Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 164 As regards Nafada District, the issue was about the appointment of the Yeriman Gombe as the District Head. The Divisional Officer defended his decision as follows:

Yerima Jalo, too, by Gombe Custom applicable to Yerimasin relation to their own immediate Sarki, is presumptive successor of the Emir of Gombe and it would seem right, under the control of an impartial Administration, that the most broken and difficult of the amalgamated Districts, Nafada, should be set aside as the training ground of future Emirs.



The new residential status of the District–Head is discussed later in this paper. The establishment of an Alkali court, the appointment of district staff, and the construction of a palace, as well as the salaries of the District Head themselves were immediately under taken by the Colonial government.



In the case of Nafada, the British combined the succession tradition of Gombe Emirship with a practical method of training future Emirs of Gombe. In the 19th century, the Yerimas of Gombe had been given training principally by greater participation in the Jihad were and in the central administration, for example, representing the Emirs in various functions including visits to Sokoto.



With the British conquest, most of such functions were no longer tenable. But the British also seemed to wish to test the capabilities of those who aspired to become Emirs. Therefore, it was only logical for the British to assign to the to become Emirs. Therefore, it was only logical for the British to assign to the Yerimas the District they considered most fragmented and likely to be difficult to administer.



Why Nafada was the most difficult of the amalgamated Districts to administer may be explained by the fact that it contained the most volatile areas in the history of the Emirate–Bormi, Bajoga etc. these had been the strongholds of the Mahdists under Jibril Gaini, and also the area (Bormi) where the Sokoto Caliphate had taken its bitter and final organized Military stand against the British.

Close to Bormi also, was the Bima–Hill (at the foot of it is the Tera Town of Gwani), where many legends, both Muslim and Non-Muslim, connected with the Bima–Hill area were, and still are current. These legends include, belief that the Mahdi would first appear in this area before moving to the East!

40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 165 To this day, the people of Gwani believe that certain supernatural occurrences regularly take place in the Bima–Hill area For example, someone may suddenly appear out of nowhere leading a ram, or bright lightening may flash in a clear sky.

Should anyone witness these happenings, it is though that this prayer will be answered.41 On Akko District, the British were of the view that:

The merger of the Gwani District and Waja Districts into Ako District (Akko) presented the least difficulty of all, for the Sarki-Gwani was but an exalted Village Headman and Musa Sarkin Yaki, who owed his present officer and-title youngest, and after Yerima Jalo, the most promising of Koiranga’s sons, might look, with confidence, for better things in the future.”



It is clear from the above comments by the D.O. that the British were more concerned about the District-Heads they appointed than the problems of administering the communities of the Districts.



The British were wrong in considering the well being of the ruling class instead of considering the real problems of governance. As from the 1930’s the Gwani and other Tera areas and Waja, both in Akko, became problem areas for the British in lace of Nafada, which they earlier thoughts would be the most difficult District to administer.



In fact Akko District was the first to face fragmentation even before Nafada and Dukku. The British themselves as early as 1915, just two years after the amalgamation of the Districts, removed Waja from Akko and even made it a District independent of Gombe Emirate.



This proves that the initial merger was not without difficulties. In 1926 Gwani and other Tera towns east of the Gongola River, which were part of Akko district, were also transferred to Biu Division of Borno province.



But, when these areas were finally returned to Gombe Emirate in 1936, Akko District not only lost the Gwani areas, but also all Tera towns West of the Gongola, to the newly created Yamaltu District and Sarkin Gwani was made district head



The Fate of the other Districts Heads

This section discusses the fate of the District Heads whose areas had been amalgamated into three Districts by 1913. Initially they were all retained as Sub-District Heads to be phased-out gradually. By 1919 their fate had been decided. Some of them were phased-out (through death or retirement) while others were reverted to the position of village heads. At the time of the amalgamation of the Districts whom were former title-holders) whom they had to redeployed or dismiss.

Table 3 shows the nine Districts-Heads whose districts were merged into the three main Districts in 1913:



Table 3: The nine District Heads appointed between 1902-1912 whose District were merged into the three main Districts in 1913 S/N

District Heads Title (Holders)

Ethnicity

Local Ties Title holder



1.



Madawaki

Pullo

Pullo Tara



2.



Magajin-Gari

Pullo

Pullo Janafulu Royal family



3.



Sarkin–Dabe

Pullo

Pullo Dabe



4.



Santuraki

Pullo

Pullo Janafulu Royal family



5.



Sarkin- Magi

Pullo

Pullo Magi



6.



Sarkin–Yaki

Pullo

Pullo Janafulu Royal family



7.



Sarkin –Nafada

Pullo

Ruler of Nafada–Town



8.



Sarkin- Bage

Bolewa

Bolewa Ruler of Bolewa

Town



9.



Sarkin-Gwani

Tera

Ruler of Gwani - Town



40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 167 the British considered them as divisible into title-holder, while the second group (n.7-9) was according to the British:



We may state here that there is no oral or written evidence from the colonial administrative records on the reactions of these District Heads (or title holders) over their fate. Judging from the reports of the colonial administrators, however, it can be inferred that the problem of what to do with these officials was a major concern of the British at the time.



The British deemed it unwise to suddenly discard too many of the former title-holders and therefore, some of these were retained for some time (as sub-District Heads) while others were so restored to their former position as rulers of towns or villages and categorized by the British as Village Heads.



This happened without any reported violent reaction! Those that were permitted to remain as sub-District Heads were phased-out gradually. They however, retained their former salaries (when they were district-Heads between 1902-1912), which were based on taxes collected by them.

The salaries of the three were fixed (on same amount) and not related to the taxes or population of their Districts. The following were the salaries of the sub-District Heads in December 1912.

Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 168

1.




Madawaki- Dukku



£120



2.



Sarkin Magi

£72



3.



Magajin-Gari

£60




4.




.



Sarkin–Dabe Gombe Abba

£100

5.






Santuraki–Gadam

£60



6.



Sarkin–Yaki–Waja

£55



7.




Sarkin–Nafada–




Nafada



£120



8.



Sarkin–Babe–Bage

£95




9.






Sarkin–Gwani–Gwani




£50



40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 169 Superfluous and their retention was, as noted, only an act of policy; the holders had been clearly warned of their positions.

In effect what this means is that the British were willing to seize the slightest opportunity to dispense with anyone of these officials. Such a situation had arisen as early as the period 1915-1916, barely two years the amalgamation of the Districts. In June, 1915, the Resident Bauchi reported that:



On the other hand it is likely that Bajoga was made the headquarters of the District because of British fears across the border to form military territory of Niger. Niger was at this time influenced by Ottoman Turks (who were to be opposed to the British in World War I) and in fact during the war, there was a Tuareg uprising (though not Sanusiyya) in Agades in 1919.



We should perhaps point out here that foremost of the colonial period, Bajoga and other areas, such as Gwani, Bima-Hill areas (just about fifteen kilometers west of Bormi) remained the most closely watched by the British political officers.



And most of the monthly Intelligence reports form Gombe Emirate dealt with these areas. The numerous colonial intelligence reports on the areas and visitors to them are testimony to the anxieties of the British.

It is said that right up to 1976, and beyond the North Eastern State Military government had a special security watch over these areas.



Earlier in this section, we mentioned that Akko town did not retain its position as headquarters of Akko District for long. Akko town, which had been the residence of the Galadima Gombe for most of the 19th C. (since the 1920’s) shared, its position as headquarters of the District with Deba from shortly after the amalgamation of the three Districts in 1913.



Thus, from about 1913 to 1936 when Galadimas of Gombe had two capitals, Akko and Deba. However, for most of the period 1913-1936, the Galadimas were more present at Deba than Akko.



This was particularly so with Galadima Barunde who was for most of the time on tour of his District. He had temporary residences in almost all the major towns or villages of the District, with Gwani as head of teras.



The question, which needs to be asked here, is: what made Deba important as from 1913? Deba was important strategically during the years 1913-1918 because of the European war. Towards the end of the 19th Century, Deba became a major slave market. With the British conquest, Deba as border town between Gombe and Adamawa became one of the major stopping points on the British troops supply line particularly during the First World War. Deba was also closer to the Gongola River than Akko.

The first road constructed by the colonial government, using forced labour, which linked Bauchi with Gombe and then Yola (using the 19th C. Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 174 trade routes) passed through Deba, until a new one via Gombe-Doma-Kumo-Billiri to Numan was constructed after 1920.

A number of reasons were put forward for the transfer of the dual headquarters of Akko district between 1913 and 1939.



When reporting in 1959 on the agricultural potentialities of the various Districts of Gombe Emirate, A.M Krzywon claimed that the transfer of the headquarters of Akko permanently to Kumo was caused by a great scarcity of water in and around Akko.



We cannot regard this as an appropriate reason since it was put forward in 1959 and moreover its main emphasis was on the transfer to Kumo in 1936. In addition despite the so-called water scarcity, Akko had been a headquarter since the middle of the 19th century.



One account, which deals with the question of transfer to Deba, has it that when the

First World War started, Deba was made a stopping place for the Germans at Garoua. The colonial government realized that the village head of Deba was not strong or influential enough to take charge of the town.



Therefore, the District Head himself (Galadima Barunde), who was a very strong personality, was ordered to transfer his headquarters to Deba on a Semi-permanent basis in ca. 1913/14. This reason is similar to the one given for the transfer of Emir Umaru from Gombe-Abba to Nafada about the same time.

Another account69 puts it that the British advised Galadima Barunde to move from Akko into ‘his’ Tera ‘subject’ areas, which were the least peaceful. The Galadima was said to have chosen Deba; the largest Tera town at that time.



This source also indicates that the time when the Galadima was asked to move to Deba, was the time when a road was being constructed through Gombe emirate to Adamawa and thence to the Cameroon’s border to provide a means of reinforcing British troops during the First World War.



The road went through Deba, and Barunde supervised the Akko District section of the road. The Galadima’s supervision of the road construction was presumably the organization of forced labour. The claim that the village head of Deba was not strong or influential is an indication of the failure of a popular local figure to get the required forced labour for the British.



What emerges from the accounts are that Barunde was transferred (on a Semi-permanent basis) to Deba principally to help in the First World War efforts.

The headquarters of the40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 175 District was finally transferred from Akko when Tera towns and villages on both sides of the Gongola River were in the process of being reconstituted into a new District - Yamaltu,

Amalgamation of Gwani District and Akko District

Akko District was so named after the town of Akko, about twenty kilometers southwest of Gombe-Abba about twenty kilometers south of the present capital (Gombe-Doma).



The name was retained throughout by the military government up to 1976, when it became Akko Local Government. At the time of the amalgamation of the District, the district comprised most Tera land was Gwani District (such as Gwani. Shiga, Wade, Deba, Zambuk and so on).



In the District were also a Deba such as Jagala, Pata and Gasi. They were also the towns of Panda and Kalshingi which were of Jukun origin in the Waja areas, the Jukun centre in the Emirate- Pindiga and its hamlets such as Dolli and Kanuri. In addition there were a number Fulbe and Kanuri towns on the Bauchi border with the District and many other Fulbe hamlets east of Ligji (on the eastern outskirts of Gombe- Doma).



There were Doma, Kundulu–an important pre-colonial market centre; and so on.

Succession to the office of the Galadima Akko (and that of Gombe Emirate) was and still is, from the Fulbe Gone family, which through the years has become divided into the first Galadima who was of the Kalshingi house.

According to an account, 80 of Ahmadu Gona’s were from the Pindiga house.

The list of Galadimas of Gombe is given in 40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 181 their station at Gujba up into Borno proper making it no longer a strategic point.

Notes

Local Authority in Gombe Emirate with particular Reference to the Creation of the District Head System, 1902-1920

Isa Alkali Abba

Department of History

Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria



1. “...Senior Government official in the Province and represents the Lieutenant Governor in all administrative matters...” Lugard, L. (1970) Political Memoranda, Revision of Instructions to Political officers on subject chiefly political and administrative (1913-1918) Third Edition Frank Cass p. l I.



2. Performed Political and Administrative duties and acted assistant to the Resident. For details of continued the role of the D.O. see Ibid p. 12 - 13

3. See Tukur. M.M. (1979) “The Imposition of British Colonial Domination on the Sokoto Caliphate, Borno and Neighboring States: 1897-1914: A Reinterpretation of Colonial Sources”, PhD Thesis ABU, Zaria p. 208- 209.

4. Ibid p. 208.

5. Ibid p. 209.

6. See Fika, A. M. (1978) The Kano Civil and British Over-Rule 1882-1940, Ibadan Oxford University Press p. 107.

7. Perham, M. 1937, Native Administration in Nigeria, Oxford University Press p. 48

8. NAK, SNP I0. 445 P/1914 Carlyle, T.F. Gombe Emirate History, of p. 32.

9. Ibid p. 32.

10. NAK, SNP 10. 445 P/I914 C Carlyle, T.F. Gombe Emirate History, p. 32. 40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 183

11. Lugard, M. 1970 Political Memoranda, p. 180–182. 12.

12. lbid p. 180.

13. Ibid p. 180.

14. Lugard, L, Political Memoranda, p. 181

15. Ibid p. 181

16. Lugard, L. Political Memoranda p. 181. See also Perham, M. (1937) Native Administration in Nigeria, O.N.P., p. 52.

17. Perham M. (1937) Native Administration in Nigeria, p. 52.

18. Ibid p. 52.

19. Lugard,. Political Memoranda, p. 183.

20. Perham, M. Op. cit p. 52.

21. Perham. M. Native Administration in Nigeria, P. 52.

22. Ibid P. 53.

23. Lugard, L. Political Memoranda, p. 181.

24. Tukur, M.M. 1979, “he Imposition of British Colonial Domination on the Sokoto Caliphate...”PhD ABU Zaria p. 344.

25. Ibid p. 344.

26. For such problems See Hill, P. 1977, Population, Prosperity and Poverty: Rural Kano 1900-1970. Cambridge University Press p. 36–42 and Fika, A.M.: Kano Civil War.. p. 172-173.

27. NAK, SNP I0, 445 P1914 Carlyle, T.F. Gombe Emirate History, of p. 1, part III.

28. Ibid, P. I.

29. NAK, SNP 1 0 . 445 P/I914 Carlyle, T.F. Gombe Emirate History, p. 1 -2 , Part III.

30. NAK. SNP 10. 445 P/1914 Carlyle, T.F. Gombe Emirate History, p. 2 Part III.

31. Ibid, p.2

32. NAK, SNP 10, 445 P/1914 Carlyle, T.F. Gombe Emirate History, p. 3.

33. NAK, SNP 7, 781/1908 F. Goward Resident, Report on the Bauchi Province for December 1907.

34. Op. cit p. 3

35. Carlyle, T. F. Op. cit, p. 3.

36. 36.Carlyle, T.F. P. 4, Gall, F.B., Gazetter Bauchi Province. Compiled in 1920, P. 3 See also Map I and 2 showing proposal amalgamated Districts including Dukku.

37. Carlyle, T. F. p.4.

38. Carlyle, T.F. P.5.

39. Carlyle, T.F. p.5

40. Ibid p.5

41. See AI-Hajj. M.A (1973) “The Mahdist Tradition in Northern Nigeria”, PhD ABU Zaria p. 169 172; Muffet, D.J.M 1964 Concerning Brave Captains, p. 145-46.

42. Carlyle, T.F. History of Gombe ... p. 5.

43. Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe.. p. 6.

44. Ibid P. 6

45. NAK, SNP 17/7245, 1912 Resident F.B. Gall, Report No. 3, Central

Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 184

Province, for quarter ended December 1912.

46. NAK, SNP I0, 445/1914 Comments from Resident Bauchi Province F.B. Gall 30th June, 1915.

47. NAK, SNP 10 445/1914 Report of Resident Central Province August, 1914 in Carlyle, Gombe History of p. 102, part IlI Parag. 21.

48. NAK, SNP 10/381 1915 Resident Gall F. B.

49. Resident F.B. Gall, Report 1915.

50. bid

51. Ibid

52. Ibid

53. NAK, SNP 10 526/P/1916 Bauchi Province Report No. 63 300’ June, 1916.

54. Ibid

55. Carlyle T.F Précis of Silent matters of facts and policy file 11/1926.

56. Ibid

57. Carlyle T.F. Précis of Silent Matters of facts and Policy

58. Ibid.

59. Lugard L. Political Memoranda.. p. 314

60. Lugard L. Political Memoranda.. p. 314.

61. See comments of the Resident Bauchi on Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe --comments 23 parag. 57.

62. Carlyle’s History of Gombe, comments 20 Parag. 81

63. lbid P. 81

64. Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe, p. 32.

65. My thanks to Prof. P.J. Shea–BUK, for drawing my attention to this point.

66. Discussion with Prof. P.J. Shea, Kano 1984.

67. Krazwon, A.M. 1959 Agricultural Note Book on Gombe Emirate, p. 3.

68. Interview with Alh. Muhammadu Gao Mutawallin Akko, Sept. 1983.

69. Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe, Part III p. 9.

70. Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe, Part III p. 9

71. Lugard L. Political Memoranda.. p. 314

72. NAK, SNP 10/445, P/1914 Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe.

73. Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe,, p. 15.

74. Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe, p. 27

75. Ibid P. 3 I

76. Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe, p. 34

References

Al-Hajj, M. A., 1973, “The Mahdist Tradition in Northern Nigeria”, PhD thesis, ABU, Zaria.

Fika, A.M. 1978, The Kano Civil War anal British Over-Rule, 1882-1940, Ibadan, Oxford University Press.

Hill, P., 1977,Population, Prosperity and Poverty, Rural Kano 1900 and 1970, Cambridge University Press.

Krazwon, A. N., 1959, Agricultural Note Book on Gombe Emirate, Gombe. 40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 185 Lugard, L. (1970) Political Memoranda, Revision of Instructions to Political officers on subject chiefly political and administrative (1913-1918) Third Edition Frank Cass

Muffet, D.1. M., 1964, Concerning Brave Captains, London.

Perham, M., 1937, Native Administration in Nigeria. London, Oxford University Press.

Tukur, M. M., 1979. “

The Imposition of British Colonial Domination on the Sokoto Caliphate, Borno and Neighboring State, 1897-1914: A Reinterpretation of Colonial source”, PhD thesis, ABU Zaria.

Archival Sources, National Archives, Kaduna (NAK)

1. Gall. F. 13., Gazetter Bauchi Province, Compiled in 1920.

2. NAK, SNP 10, 445, P/1914, Carlyle, T.F., Gombe Emirate: History of.

3. NAK, SNP 10/381/1915 Resident F. B. Gall, Bauchi Province, June, 1915.

4. NAK, SNP 7, 781/1908, Goward F., Resident Bauchi (Central) Province, 1907.

5. NAK, SNP 17/7245/1912 Resident F.G. Gall, Report No. 33, Central Province, December 1912.

6. NAK, SNP file 11/1926, Carlyle. F. 1., Précis of Silent Matters of Facts and Policy; Divisional office, Gombe.



Oral Interviews

1. Alhaji Muhammadu Ga’i, Aged 62, Mutawalllin Akko, September, 1982.

2. Alhaji Muhammadu Ngawa, Aged 65, Dukku, 1982.

3. Alhaji Yuguda Umaru Aged 68, Gombe, 1983 2 years agoEditDeleteGeographic features & Photographs around Gwani District of Tera, Gombe in Nigeria (general), Nigeria

Populated Place; a city, town, village, or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work.

Stream; a body of running water moving to a lower level in a channel on land.

Hills; rounded elevations of limited extent rising above the surrounding land with local relief of less than 300m.

Wikipedia entries close to Gwani

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Gwani, Nigeria PageWorld:Nigeria:(( East-Central State ))

Latitude

10.4167

Longitude

11.5000

Altitude (feet)

925

Lat (DMS)

10° 25' 0N

Long (DMS)

11° 30' 0E

Altitude (meters)

281

Time zone (est)

Approximate population for 7 km radius from this point: 14602

Google links for Gwani

Google links for Gwani, Nigeria

Nearby Cities and Towns

West

North

East

South

Difa (5.8 nm) Deba Fulani (7.0 nm) Jurara (7.7 nm)

Shinga (4.2 nm)

Kalo (3.6 nm) Gadam (4.9 nm) Nahantsi (5.8 nm) Maisaje (6.3 nm) Maidawa (7.7 nm)

Wuratale (5.8 nm) Mallam Bapa (5.8 nm) Hinna (6.1 nm) Wuradole (6.7 nm) Dalla (6.7 nm) Kwal (7.0 nm) Ungwa Canteen (7.1 nm) Kerma (7.6 nm) Maigana (7.8 nm) Dadin Kowa (8.0 nm) Nearby Airports Code

IATA

Kind

Name

City

Distance

Bearing

Airlines

FR4177

Small

BAJOGA NORTHEAST

Bajoga

30 nm N

0

FR33043

Medium

Gombe Lawanti International Airport

Gombe

36 nm W

262

DNYO

YOL

Medium

YOLA

Yola

88 nm S

141

(one of Swiftair or Arik Air)

Nearby references in Wikipedia:

Distance

Title

13.8 nm

SW

Deba Habe

21.2 nm

W

Gombe, Nigeria

22.1 nm

SW

Gombe State

22.2 nm

W

Abubakar Umar Memorial Stadium


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Local Authority in Gombe Emirate with particular Reference to the Creation of the District Head System, 1902-1920

Isa Alkali Abba

Department of History

Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria




Introduction

This paper discusses the creation of the District Head system in Gombe by the British. This system can be said to have become firmly established by 1913. However, the paper takes us up to 1920 because this was the period when some of the title-officials retained in the District-Head system after 1913 were finally phased-out. This was also the time when the Emirate capital was transferred to Gombe-Doma, a transfer, which had among other effects, some bearing on the subsequent development of the District Head system during the later colonial period.

In establishing their own type of local government from 1902 onwards, the British undertook the following steps: (i) they created homologous Districts by merging together all the villages within a particular area, thus dividing up the Emirate. (ii) They based authority on territory and subordinated everyone within a given area to the same official. This official was called a District Head. (iii) They also appointed a single tax-gathering authority (the District-Head) in each given area (i.e. District), thereby drastically reducing the levels in the tax-gathering hierarchy. Thus, the British integrated tax-collection and administration. In undertaking these measures the British not only greatly reduced the number of the 19th century participants in the political system but also the number of participating units–ethnicities, families and clans.

Immediately the British completed the conquest of the capitals of the Emirates of the Sokoto caliphate (including Sokoto itself) and even while the pacification of the towns and villages in the Emirates was still going on, the British began to establish their administrative control over the former Caliphate area. The processChieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 150 involved the creation of different levels of administrative structures.

The first major administrative step was the grouping of Emirates into a number of provinces. These provinces, including Borno and many other areas that did not fall under the Caliphate, were named the Northern Provinces. Secondly, each of the Provinces was broken into Divisions, and the headquarters of the Emirate within each Division became the headquarters of the Divisions. Thirdly, the various Divisions were, for effective administrative control, broken into homologous Districts. However, during the first two decades of colonial rule, the British created in most of the Emirate what they referred to as ‘Sub-Districts’ with the aim, principally of Phasing-out the numerous title-holders, Kofofi, Jakadu and slave officials. By the 1920°s in Gombe, for example, most, if not all the Sub-districts had been phased-out and what were left were what were called “Main Districts”. Lastly, in each Main District there were villages that were grouped together. Each village was regarded as an administrative unit and had a village head. Each large village or town was also divided into smaller administrative units called wards.

The following were the titles of the various officials who were in-charge of these levels of government; the British, of cause were first and foremost the ultimate authority.

At the Regional level the British instituted the office of High Commissioner, later known as Lt. Governor. The Sultan (formerly Amir al-Mu’minin or Caliph) of Sokoto who in the 19th century had been the overall authority for the whole of the Caliphate, was reduced to the position of an Emir even though the British still, nominally, regarded him as the highest indigenous authority within the Indirect Rule System.

At the Provincial level, the colonial government instituted the office of Resident,1 while a first class Emir (so termed by the British) in a given Province, was regarded by the British as the highest indigenous authority. At the Divisional level within each Province, the British placed a Divisional Officer2 (popularly called a D.O.), while an Emir of an Emirate within a Division was the highest indigenous authority. It is necessary to point out here that, as far as the colonial government was concerned, the divisional40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 151 level was the lowest of posting of the colonial political or administrative officers. The remaining levels of administration had indigenous officers as their authorities. Thus, in the various Districts (which the British, of course, had created) that formed each Division, the colonial government appointed District Heads. These in turn had under them officials termed village Heads. Lastly came ward heads who were in charge of the smallest administrative units. The various indigenous authorities from the Emir to the Ward Head while they were known by official titles also had traditional titles, which varied (and still vary) from one Emirate to another, and from one locality to another within a given Emirate.

Having discussed the various levels of administration established by the Emirate, we wish to point out that this paper is concerned with one particular level, that is the creation by the British of the District Head system in Gombe from 1902–1920.

The Structure of Gombe Emirate, Division and Bauchi (Formerly Central) Province

This section deals with how Gombe emirate was grouped under Gombe Division and also under Bauchi province. It also deals with the problem of the boundary of the Emirate on the eastern parts of the Gongola River, which continued to shift towards and away from Biu Division (Borno Province) between 1902–1936. An understanding of these developments is necessary because this will enable us to know precisely the position of Gombe Emirate within Bauchi Province during the period under discussion.

After the occupation of the Sokoto Caliphate, the British re-organised and in some cases altered the boundaries of the former Emirate when creating the various Provinces and Divisions, even though each Emirate was made ‘independent’ and ‘metropolitan’. Sokoto was constituted into an Emirate, with the sultan as its Emir. In some cases new Emirates were created out of a single Emirate and often assigned to different Provinces. For example, three additional emirates were carved out of Zaria (Zazzau) namely Keffi, Nassarawa and Jama’a, and put under Nassarawa Province.3

However, none of the areas of Gombe Emirate was constituted into a separate Emirate and Gombe Emirate itself became part of Bauchi (Central) ProChieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 152 escape Colonial Government reorganisation. Two additional Emirates were carved out of the Emirate: one, namely Wase, was put in Muri Province.4 Up to 1920, Bauchi the parent Emirate, was, along with Gombe and the formerly independent kingdom of Ningi, constituted into a Bauchi Province.5 In this Province were also included the Independent’ Tangale and Waja Districts. In 1926, Katagum, Misau and Jama’are Emirates (which until then were grouped with other Emirates as part of Kano Province), were transferred to Bauchi Province.6

In the 19th century, all the Emirates and their Emirs were regarded as equal by Sokoto however small or large, wealthy or poor; there was therefore no ranking of Emirs. However, under the British, the Emir of Bauchi was classified as “First Class Emir”.7 Thence, he was the paramount indigenous authority in the Province. The Emir of Gombe was categorised as Second Class and was not made a First Class Emir until 1953, though even after that, he remained subordinate to the Emir of Bauchi by virtue of the Provincial grouping, under British Northern Nigeria. The ostensible reason for the grading of Emirs by the British was in general based on tax revenue considerations and population of the Emirates that formed a Province, although this general policy was not always strictly observed.

In August, 1903 (after the defeat of Attahiru I in July of the same year at Bormi) Gombe Emirate was placed under the political charge of Mr. C.L. Temple, Resident, (stationed at Bauchi), and was incorporated into Bauchi Province.8 In October, 1904, Frederick Lugard, the Lt. Governor of the Northern Provinces, visited the Emirate on his way to Borno. He passed through Gombe-Abba to Nafada and then proceeded to Gujba (in Borno).

It is most likely that it was at the time of this visit by Lugard that the British fixed the Emirate’s boundaries with Borno and Yola Provinces. The Gongola River was roughly taken, as its Northern Boundary,9 and most of the areas on the left bank of the river (from Nafada-east and Southeast) were put in Borno and Yola Provinces. Thus, the Tera Villages (Gwani, Shinga, Wade, Hina etc), which, though they had not been incorporated into Gombe Emirate in the 19th century (they had actually paid some nominal allegiance to Gombe and later Bormi) were merged with Borno vince. But Bauchi Emirate itself did not40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 153 Province. Areas like Shani, Gulani and so on were similarly not incorporated.

It is necessary to state here that all the Tera areas under Gwani Districts (such as Shinga, Wade and Hina) on the left bank of the river Gongola, continued to be shifted to and from between Biu and Gombe Divisions until 1936 when they finally remained as a part of Gombe Divisions, Gwani remain the only District Head of Tera until the amalgamation of Districts in 1913 with akko .



For example, between 1902-1906/7, the areas were put under Gujba in Borno Province. In 1907/8, the areas were returned to Bauchi Province and placed under Gombe Emirate. Then during the 1926 major boundary adjustments in Northern Nigeria, the Gongola River was again taken as the boundary between Biu and Gombe and so the areas were put under Biu division (Borno Province). Ten years later (in 1936), the areas were finally returned to Gombe.

In 1906, Gombe Emirate, with the Tangale and Waja, Tula, Awok, Dadiya and Cham areas were formed into an administrative division called Gombe Division.10 Later, Tula, Ture, Tangaltong and Cham Districts were constituted out of these that had been merged with Gombe Emirates as a Division.

Between 1902–1919, Nafada was the British Military Station and also served as a European trading centre. In fact it was also the Headquarters of the British Colonial Political Officer (the D.O.) in the Emirate.



For two years after Attahiru I’s battle with the British at Bormi (July, 1903), the British stationed a Military detachment at Gwani, probably to ward-off potential revolt from those who continued to flock around Gwani–Bima Hill area, an area very close to Bormi.

Gombe-Abba remained the Emirate’s administrative headquarters from 1902–1914 when the Emir Umaru was moved to Nafada. In 1919, the colonial government finally moved the headquarters of the Emirate to Doma and then raised it Gombe-Doma, which has remained the capital to data. The former 19th century capital, Gombe-Abba, since then has remained just a village headquarters!

In official British administrative nomenclature, Gombe Emirate, like all other Emirates of Northern Nigeria, was designated a “Native Authority” (N.A). Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 154 The Evolution of the District Head System 1902-1920

In this section we are going to discuss those aspects the British found most trouble–some about the pre-colonial system of local government in the Emirates of the Sokoto Caliphate, when they came to evolve their own system of local government.

The period of the evolution of the District Head system in the various Emirates of Northern Nigeria varied from one Emirate to another depending on, among other things, how effective or otherwise, each Emirate government was at the time of the British conquest, and the complexities of the pre- colonial local government systems in each of the Emirates.

In Gombe Emirate the extension of British control to the towns and villages or the formation of homologous districts, started after two major events in the area between 1902 and 1903. The Emirate capital can be said to have been occupied on 25th February, 1902 with the submission of Emir Umaru to the British. But the Mahdist-state within the Emirate, that of Bormi under Mallam Jibril also had to be occupied. On 15th March, 1902, Jibril was captured after a battle at Toungo and exiled to Lokoja where he died in 1907. On 15th March, 1903, the British took Sokoto town and the reigning Caliph. Attahiru I left Sokoto on Hijra to the holy lands of Islam Mecca and Madina via Kano and Gombe and finally to Gwani . The British in their bid to prevent this attempt at Hijra, fought the Caliph and his followers on Gombe soil–at Bormi, the Mahdist centre. It was only after the killing of the Caliph together with over Seven Hundred of his followers that Gombe Emirate and indeed the whole of the former Sokoto Caliphate can be said to have been finally occupied by the British.

To fully understand the changes introduced by the British in the Pre–existing administrative and political structure of Gombe Emirate, it is necessary to discuss in some detail what the British said to have disliked about the Pre–existing system of local administration in the Emirates of Northern Nigeria in general. After this we will also consider the principles and philosophy, which the British used to develop a system of homologous Districts.

Lugard in his Political Memoranda identified three problem areas, which he referred to as ‘evils’ (to colonial government interests) inherent in the Pre–existing system. These were40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 155 absentee rulers (b) tax–gatherers (Jakadu) and (c) disconnected areas of jurisdiction.11

Absentee rulers were referred to by Lugard as “Fief–Holders”12 who resided at the capital of Emirates. These were in fact the Emirates titled–officials (including the Kofofi, and Ubandakuna) who had various communities of the country–side attached to them for the purposes of tax–collection. In Gombe Emirate, these titled–officials were certainly not the rulers–as Lugard claimed–of the communities attached to them. Lugard identified various reasons, which he suggested were responsible for these so–called“absentee rulers” having to reside at the capital of the Emirates. Among such reasons was that there was:

(…) A natural tendency for the Fief–Holders fearful of sinister influences which might rob them of their precarious titles, and anxious to share in the councils of their overlord to reside as much as possible at the capital, and to leave their territories to be misgoverned in their absence by a Deputy (Jakada). The Emirs on their parts were not less desirous to retain their powerful vassals at the capital, lest, they should grow too independent in a distant Province.13

It should be noted that the Gombe titled–officials, in the 19th century were central government officials. They resided at the capital in order to perform central government duties.

As for the tax gatherers–the Jakadu–who were agents of the title–officials, it seems the ‘evil’ Lugard pinpointed in the system was in the manner of their appointment, the powers they wielded and the distribution of the tax collected. The tax–gatherers were appointed not by the Emirate government but by their masters (the titled officials) and such a system was certainly against British interests and their concept of local government. The tax–gatherers also wielded considerable power and influence in the country–side since they alone had the ears of the titled–officials. In addition the tax–gatherers were the first to take a portion of whatever tax revenue was collected and handed over to them by the local authorities.

Concerning the last–mentioned ‘evil’–the disconnected areas of authority–the problem the British faced centred on how in the Pre–colonial period the titled officials had held jurisdiction over and claimed taxes from and number of areas that were frequently: - (a) Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 156 not homologous.14 Lugard claimed that the areas under the titled–officials were:

(…) Detached areas situated like islands in the heart of another jurisdiction. This state of things necessary increased the evils of absentee rulership and caused a conflict of authority.15

It needs to be pointed out here that in reality, the titled–officials in Gombe (many of whom were Fulbe Clan Heads) had jurisdiction (based on personal allegiances) and collected taxes not on territory basis but from the various communities who were attached to them, many of whom (for example the itinerant Fulbe Clan Groups) were found in different areas of the Emirate at different times of the year.

Thus, what the British considered most troublesome about the pre–existing system of local administration were the titled–officials who resided at the capital of the Emirates of Northern Nigeria, the Kofofi, the slave–officials, the Jakadu and the discontinuous matter of authority and responsibility. It seems therefore that the problem of the British centred on the entire basis of authority.

In the Pre–colonial system, authority was frequently personal (e.g. to clan head or to a particular individual). The British however, wanted to base authority on territory, so that everyone within a given area would be subordinated to the same official. The British obviously could not base their system on personal allegiances–most especially since these generally worked against their interests. The British wanted to have a system where the tax–gathering authority was the responsible official and they integrated, of course, tax–collection and administration.

For the British, the function of local government was first and foremost for tax–collection, and they saw taxes as the sign of allegiance.16 As Perham has noted:

No branch of administration demands a more realistic relationship between the government on the one side and the people upon the other than the collection of revenue.17

She also remarked that in order to “(...) cleanse and regularise the methods of taxation in the Emirates, reform into the whole40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 157 administrative system had to be undertaken”.18 The reform of the Pre- colonial methods of taxations thus brought about the formation of homologous districts.

The Formation of Homologous Districts

This section discusses how Districts were formed in Gombe between 1902–1912 and how those that had been created by 1912 were amalgamated into three Districts in 1913. Also discussed are the methods actually followed by the colonial government in creating the Districts and in amalgamating them in 1913.

The British undertook the formation of homologous Districts gradually because as Lugard put it:

…The whole object of this (new) system of taxation (and administration) is that it should be based on Native Tradition and custom to an extent probably hitherto untried in any Colony or Protectorate.19

Therefore, the colonial government first issued The Land Revenue Ordinance of 1904” in which the Emirs were to pay over one-quarter of their revenue to the Government.20 Meanwhile political officers were instructed to begin an assessment of the value of production in the various Emirates and also to inquire into the methods of Pre–colonial tax collection. It was through this inquiry that the British discovered the discontinuous matter of authority and jurisdiction and the multiplicity of tax–gatherers.21 They also discovered that neither the titled–officials in whose names the taxes were collected or their agents were the administrators of the rural communities attached to them.

In 1906 therefore, the government took a further step. A proclamation in that year authorised the Residents to assess the taxability of the people (of the Emirates), appoint District–Heads and Village Heads who were to collect taxes and punish evasion and extortion.22 To do this, the three‘evils’, which Lugard referred to, had to be abolished.

The new local government as such took the following form. To make the new system resemble the traditional or pre–colonial local government system, the British appointed some of the title–holders as District Heads, and made them reside in their Districts and be responsible to the Emir for their administration. Because Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 158 the Jakadu the tax–gatherers, were so disliked by the British, they were all dispensed with. Their responsibilities were taken over in part, by the District Heads, who collected the tax from each village in accordance with his assistant, in part by the village Heads, who collected from individuals. The detached areas of jurisdiction were eliminated and the District under each District Head was made self–contained or homologous.23 The task of eliminating detached areas of jurisdiction in Gombe, however, like in most Emirates was done gradually over a period of some years.

With the above arrangement, therefore, the British decided to source their aims by outlawing extra–territorial lines of organisation and the family or patriarchal conception of authority, by rigorously upholding territoriality as the basis of controlling the towns and villages of the Emirates of Northern Nigeria.24 Inevitably this entailed the subordination of some traditional authorities to other authorities with whom they had previously been of equal status. It also entailed a large–scale withdrawal of recognition from the title–holders, Kofofi, slave–officials, Jakadu etc, since a necessary corollary to the territorial rationalisation of the system was a reduction in the number of participants in the political system.25 Hence, the exercise was bound to meet with resistance in one form or another and the British realising this went rather cautiously about carrying out their reforms.

In Gombe Emirate, the British did not face serious problems over forming homologous Districts as they did in some Emirates such as Kano.26 This is because, the British took over an area where the machinery of state had effectively ceased to exist. Therefore, the way was more open for the British to do what they wanted since there was virtually no effective administrative system to oppose them.

The following extract from a report by T.F. Carlyle, clearly illustrates the point made above that there was virtually no effective administrative system in Gombe.

Having regard to the broken state in which the Administration found Gombe Emirate, the Rulers without following, and the Rulers and people alike stricken by poverty–the natural sequence of anarchy (accentuated, it is true, a blight which in the years 1904 and 1905, had brought severe famine) it could not have seemed unjust if the40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 159 administration had ignored the claims of small Fief–holders and cut the Emirate forthwith into substantial districts.27

However, the British still decided to be cautious as Carlyle himself quickly added:

It was thought well, however, to proceed cautiously because of the conservative nature of the people, who had no truer conception of our aims and because the capacity and temperament of the various native officials were yet unknown quantities.28

Because the British were not faced with any opposition when they began to experiment with their theories of administration, they not only amalgamated the Twelve Districts they had formed by 1912 to just three in 1913, but they also drastically reduced the number of ‘noble’ families with authority to only four. The questions to be asked here therefore are: How exactly did the British go about doing this: And what happened to the other ‘Noble’ families (including slave officials and the Non-Fulbe)?

In evolving homologous Districts in Gombe, the British took into consideration such important factors as territorial contiguity, ethnic grouping and the historical connection between the various communities. In the appointment of District–Heads most were selected from among the title–holders who had various communities attached to them for tax collection. The idea was basically to make the new arrangement appear ‘traditional’. The following were the officials the British found holding office in 1902 and whom they (the British) categorised into two broad divisions according to whether an official was in-charge of many or few towns and villages. Table 1 illustrates the categories:

Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 160 Table 1: Titled-Officials and the Towns attached to them at the time of the British conquest29 Category (a) officials with many towns and villages

Category (b) officials with few towns and villages

Sarkin–Dabe

Damburam

Sarkin–Magi

Santuraki

Madawaki

Waziri

Galadima

Magajin–Gari

Sarkin–Yaki

Ardo Na’i

Ciroma

Alkali Gombe

Yerima (also Akko’s Kofa)

Turaki (Kofa to Madawaki, Sarkin–Magi and Ardo Maituta)

Ajiya (Kofa to Sarkin–Yaki, Sarkin–Dabe and Ardo Walama).

40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 161 These were Jillahi (including Ribadu), Toungo and Dukul Districts. These Districts were then placed under Turaki, Sarkin Magi, and Madawaki respectively as District Heads. Bage, which was before the coming of the British attached to the Shettima, was now constituted into a District and Sarkin Bage Bubakari was appointed as its District Head.

It can be observed here that during this early period of the British drive towards homologous Districts in Gombe, many, if not most of the Districts created, were in fact single towns and in some cases, at best, towns together with their outlying farmlands and hamlets.

In the Eastern parts of the Emirate, the Tera areas East of the Gongola River, which were put under Biu–Borno Province in 1904 and transferred to Gombe in 1906, were amalgamated into a District with the Sarkin Gwani as the District Head of Tera, with Akko and Pindiga and other Jukun Villages, they were made into a District with the GaladimanAkko as the District Head. The plain Waja areas were also made into a District and the Sarkin Yaki appointed as the District Head.

As for Central Gombe, the predominantly Bolewa towns of Gadam, Bojude, Kafarati and Kom-Fellata were made into a District under the Santurakias District Head. The towns North of the Gongola Lafia, Zauna, and Malala were made into Malala District and the Magajin Gari was appointed District Head.

Between 1908 and 1911, the entire District mentioned above underwent some re-organisation, and a number of those appointed District Heads by the British lost their positions. The slave–officials in particular were all dispensed with.

The first District–Head and Emirate title–holder to lose his position was the Ajiya who was relieved of his post. Kalam, which was his main area, was merged with the Dukku District. Biri and Jillahi Districts and the towns of Wawa, Beledigga, Keffiwol were formed into one District and put under YerimaJalo.32

In 1908 the Waja district was taken away from the Pre–colonial Sarkin Yaki family. This was brought about by a proposal made by the D.O. in December, 1907 in which it was reported that “the Sarkin Yaki, placed in-charge of the Waja District, has not hitherto proved himself capable of doing his work and it wasChieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 162 proposed, the following year, to substitute for him the YerimaJalo”.33 However, in 1903 the District was given not to Yerima–Jalo, but to Musa a son of the Late Emir Kwairanga by a Waja mother, who subsequently, acquired the title of Sarkin Yaki as well34. This was not all happened to the former Sarkin Yaki family. Kunde, the family’s slave–farm was merged into the Dukku District. Dabewo, the headquarters of Sarkin Dabe, was also merged with Dukku, while the Sarkin Dabe was required to take charge of Gombe Abba town and later Hashidu35–across the Gongola on the left bank. By the end of the colonial period, Hashidu had been placed under Darazo (in Bauchi).

By 1912, the British had been able to form the following homologous Districts in Gombe Emirate.36

Table 2: Districts and their Heads as formed by the British by 1912 S/N

Districts

Districts Head

Identification



1.



Dukku

Sarkin–Dukku

Pullo–Geno



2.



Malala

Magani–Gari

Pullo–Royal Family



3.



Gombe–Abba

Pullo–Dabe

Sarkin -Dabe



4.



Gadam

Santuraki

Pullo–Royal Family



5.



Nafada

Sarkin–Nafada

Pullo



6.



Biri And Jillahi

Yerima

Pullo–Royal Family



7.



Bage

Sarkin–Bage

Bolewa



8.



Toungo

Sarkin–Magi

Pullo–Magi



9.



Dukul

Madawaki

Pullo–Tara



10.



Gwani

Sarkin–Gwani

Tera



11.



Akko

Galadiman–Akko

Pullo–Gona



12.



Waja

Sarkin–Yaki

Pullo–Royal Family

40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 163 In 1913, however, the twelve districts were amalgamated into three main districts only, and were named Dukku, Nafada and Akko under Sarkin–Dukku, Yerima and Galadima–Akko respectively. According to Carlyle:

In regard to the special wish of the Emir (Umaru) the Dukul district was left in status quo; but it was clearly understood that this District should merge into the main Nafada District on the death or deposition of the present Madaiki.37

This simply shows that the British tried to accommodate of social class which they used as collaborators and they were willing to pay the cost of so–doing, even though this compromised their reorganisation policy.

The amalgamation was defended by the Divisional Officer in Gombe as follows:

This amalgamation was not planned arbitrarily but based on good reason. In the first place Burunde, Galadiman Akko, Haruna Sarkin Dukku and Yerima Jalo had proved themselves by far the most efficient Headmen.38

The quotation above mentioned that the Headmen were efficient. The question which should be asked is: efficient in doing what? Presumably in collecting taxes and turning them over to the treasury–since these were the things the British were concerned about.

The D.O. in addition to commenting on the District Head also tried to rationalise the composition of the new Districts. Concerning Dukku District, he wrote that:

Dukku District as now formed, represents (roughly speaking) the old Kalam Kingdom (sic) in its entirety, and, on the conquest of the Kalam Bolewa by Buba–Yero, their decadence and the continuous occupation by the Dukku Fulani of the greater part of their territory, may be fairly based on a claim by the present Sarkin–Dukku, Lineal descendant of Ardo Abdu, full and elder brother of Kottokore, to have supplanted the Bolewa dynasty.39Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 164 As regards Nafada District, the issue was about the appointment of the Yeriman Gombe as the District Head. The Divisional Officer defended his decision as follows:

Yerima Jalo, too, by Gombe Custom applicable to Yerimas in relation to their own immediate Sarki, is presumptive successor of the Emir of Gombe and it would seem right, under the control of an impartial Administration, that the most broken and difficult of the amalgamated Districts, Nafada, should be set aside as the training ground of future Emirs.40

The new residential status of the District–Head is discussed later in this paper. The establishment of an Alkali court, the appointment of district staff, and the construction of a palace, as well as the salaries of the District Head themselves were immediately under taken by the Colonial government.

In the case of Nafada, the British combined the succession tradition of Gombe Emirship with a practical method of training future Emirs of Gombe. In the 19th century, the Yerimas of Gombe had been given training principally by greater participation in the Jihad were and in the central administration, for example, representing the Emirs in various functions including visits to Sokoto. With the British conquest, most of such functions were no longer tenable. But the British also seemed to wish to test the capabilities of those who aspired to become Emirs. Therefore, it was only logical for the British to assign to the to become Emirs. Therefore, it was only logical for the British to assign to the Yerimas the District they considered most fragmented and likely to be difficult to administer.

Why Nafada was the most difficult of the amalgamated Districts to administer may be explained by the fact that it contained the most volatile areas in the history of the Emirate–Bormi, Bajoga etc. these had been the strongholds of the Mahdists under Jibril Gaini, and also the area (Bormi) where the Sokoto Caliphate had taken its bitter and final organised Military stand against the British. Close to Bormi also, was the Bima–Hill at Gwani (the head of Tera Townsi), where many legends, both Muslim and Non-Muslim teras were connected with the Bima–Hill area were, and still are current. These legends include, belief that the Mahdi would first appear in this area before moving to the East! 40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 165 To this day, the people of Gwani believe that certain supernatural occurrences regularly take place in the Bima–Hill area For example, someone may suddenly appear out of nowhere leading a ram, or bright lightening may flash in a clear sky. Should anyone witness these happenings, it is though that this prayer will be answered.41 On Akko District, the British were of the view that:

The merger of the Gwani District and Waja Districts into Ako (Akko) presented the least difficulty of all, for the Sarki-Gwani was but an exalted Village Headman and Musa Sarkin Yaki, who owed his present officer and-title youngest, and after Yerima Jalo, the most promising of Koiranga’s sons, might look, with confidence, for better things in the future.”42

It is clear form the above comments by the D.O. that the British were more concerned about the District-Heads they appointed than the problems of administering the communities of the Districts. The British were wrong in considering the well being of the ruling class instead of considering the real problems of governance. As from the 1930’s the Gwani and other Tera areas and Waja, both in Akko, became problem areas for the British in lace of Nafada, which they earlier thoughts would be the most difficult District to administer. In fact Akko District was the first to face fragmentation even before Nafada and Dukku. The British themselves as early as 1915, just two years after the amalgamation of the Districts, removed Waja from Akko and even made it a District independent of Gombe Emirate.

This proves that the initial merger was not without difficulties. In 1926 Gwani and other Tera towns east of the Gongola River, which were part of Akko district were also transferred to Biu Division of Borno province. But, when these areas were finally returned to Gombe Emirate in 1936, Akko District not only lost the Gwani areas, but also all Tera towns West of the Gongola, to the newly created Yamaltu District.

To conclude this section, we have demonstrated how by 1913 the British had reduced the number of participants in the local authority system, or the number of “noble families”with power and authority until ultimately there remained: Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 166

a. The ruling family (with Emir and Yerima)

b. The Fulbe Genno and Fulbe Detibe/Dembo (Dukku)

c. The Fulbe Gona (two branches)–Akko

In addition, and perhaps more importantly, the number of participating units (ethnicities, families, clans and so on) were also reduced. The reduction in participating units was undoubtedly one of the factors leading to the new politics of the 1950’s and 1960’s when, particularly after independence, there developed a re-awareness of ‘ethnicity’. The next questions which we have to deal what then are: what happened to slave-officials and also to the non-Fulbe?

The Fate of the other Districts Heads

This section discusses the fate of the District Heads whose areas had been amalgamated into three Districts by 1913. Initially they were all retained as Sub-District Heads to be phased-out gradually. By 1919 their fate had been decided. Some of them were phased-out (through death or retirement) while others were reverted to the position of village heads. At the time of the amalgamation of the Districts whom were former title-holders) whom they had to redeployed or dismiss. Table 3 shows the nine Districts-Heads whose districts were merged into the three main Districts in 1913:

Table 3: The nine District Heads appointed between 1902-1912 whose District were merged into the three main Districts in 1913 S/N

District Heads Title (Holders)

Ethnicity

Local Ties Title holder



1.



Madawaki

Pullo

Pullo Tara



2.



Magajin-Gari

Pullo

Pullo Janafulu Royal family



3.



Sarkin–Dabe

Pullo

Pullo Dabe



4.



Santuraki

Pullo

Pullo Janafulu Royal family



5.



Sarkin- Magi

Pullo

Pullo Magi



6.



Sarkin–Yaki

Pullo

Pullo Janafulu Royal family



7.



Sarkin –Nafada

Pullo

Ruler of Nafada–Town



8.



Sarkin- Bage

Bolewa

Bolewa Ruler of Bolewa

Town



9.



Sarkin-Gwani

Tera

Ruler of Gwani - Town

40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 167 The British considered them as divisible into title-holder, while the second group (n.7-9) were according to the British:

Territorial leaders by origin, but who had attained the position of District Headmen under the Administration rather by fortune than by merit, and whose good fortune had not been shared by other headmen (not District Headmen) or like nature such as the Sarakuna Biri, Pindiga and Deba among others.43

From T. F. Carlyle, we get the following information:

Though some of 2nd class (7-97) are indeed or Fulani origin yet by prescription and the practical absorption of the Habe (non-Fulbe) element, they (Assarkin Dukku) may fairly be conceded – to stand in the shoes of the old Habe chieftains whom their ancestors ousted.44

We may state here that there is no oral or written evidence from the colonial administrative records on the reactions of these District Heads (or title holders) over their fate. Judging form the reports of the colonial administrators, however, it can be inferred that the problem of what to do with these officials was a major concern of the British at the time.

The British deemed it unwise to suddenly discard too many of the former title-holders and therefore, some of these were retained for some time (as sub-District Heads) while others were so restored to their former position as rulers of towns or villages and categorized by the British as Village Heads.

This happened without any reported violent reaction! Those that were permitted to remain as sub-District Heads were phased-out gradually. They however, retained their former salaries (when they were district-Heads between 1902-1912), which were based on taxes collected by them. The salaries of the three were fixed (on same amount) and not related to the taxes or population of their Districts. The following were the salaries of the sub-District Heads in December 1912.45

Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 168

1.



Madawaki- Dukku

£120



2.



Sarkin Magi

£72



3.



Magajin-Gari

£60



4.



Sarkin–Dabe Gombe Abba

£100



5.



Santuraki–Gadam

£60



6.



Sarkin–Yaki–Waja

£55



7.



Sarkin–Nafada–Nafada

£120



8.



Sarkin–Babe–Bage

£95



9.



Sarkin–Gwani–Gwani

£50

40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 169 Superfluous and their retention was, as noted, only an act of policy; the holders had been clearly warned of their positions.48

In effect what this means is that the British were willing to seize the slightest opportunity to dispense with anyone of these officials. Such a situation had arisen as early as the period 1915-1916, barely two years the amalgamation of the Districts. In June, 1915, the Resident Bauchi reported that:

Three of them (the Sub-District Heads) finally proved the indivisibility of further retaining them in office. These were, the Madaki, head of Dukkul Districts, Sarkin-Magi, Subhead of Tongo , and Sarkin-Dabe Subheads of Gombe group (...)49 the two heads (Madaki and Sarkin Magi were implicated in an extortion case and were offered as an act of grace the choice of resigning or standing trial. They rendered their resignations, which the Emir (or the British?) accepted. They will not receive pension.50

Thus, the two were dispensed with, Dukku, which earlier on had been kept as a District on the personal request of the Emir, was merged, as originally intended with Nafada main District. As for the third person, Sarkin Dabe, the British claimed that:

…The age and uselessness of the third were found to be retarding progress, and the emir agreed (or the British decided?) that he ought to retire.51

The British, however, admitted that the Sarki-Dabe was not found guilty of any irregularity and therefore allowed him to have a maintenance allowance of £36 p.a.52 and this is a clear testimony that the British just wanted to dispense with these officials, no matter by what means.

In June, 1916 it was reported again that “The unsatisfactory conduct of the Head of the Nafada sub- District of the Nafada District caused the reduction of his salary from £120 to £96 p.a”.53 The fact that the British used these vague wordings goes to further confirm the point we have just made above concerning the real intentions of the British. In the same year it was reported that the sub-district head of Bage died, His successor son Waziri Hammadu was appointed Sarkin-Bage but just as a village Head.54Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 170 In 1917, the D.O. of Gombe mooted a suggestion on what would happen to another sub-district head. Reporting to the Resident of Bauchi, he suggested that:

(...) If the Magajin Gari were to again show disrespect to Sarkin-Dukku, his deposition would mean a saving to Revenue and the proper and salaried village, Headmen–Sarkis Zaune, Malala, Lafia and Tali would come” into their own.55

In 1919, a natural opportunity arose with the death of Damburam Gombe. The D.O reported to the Resident Bauchi that:

I have advised (or instructed?) Santuraki should take over Gombe (Abba) group now his brother Danburam is dead and Dagam (Sub-district of the Santuraki) merger with Dukku take effect forthwith.56

It is clear that by the time of the transfer of the Emirate capital from Nafada to Doma in 1919, the rest of the sub-districts were merged with the three main districts and their heads either phased out or some of them, like Sarkin Nafada, appointed village Heads or at best Heads of a Village Group area. In their places, the British put local headmen who were from the localities. The plan for this was clearly stated at the time of the amalgamation i.e. that “the Sub-Districts retained as such by Magaji, Sarkin-Dabe and Santuraki, should gradually be eliminated in favour of less arbitrary sub-divisions under local Headmen (with less presentation).”57 Therefore, each village Headman subsequently became directly responsible to the District Head instead of first to the Sub-District Headmen. It needs to be added here that all these reflect the British interest in efficient tax collection and nothing else; they saw each stage as a change for “Corruption and embezzlement” (and of course, each stage was traditionally where the various title-holders got their revenue). The British were quite right when they stated that they did not want a proliferation of pompous of indirect rule, and a great many Village Heads (i.e. tax collectors, which is what a Village Head actually was).

To conclude this section, the D.O. Gombe reported in 1920 that “The Heads are now shown as Sub-District Headmen.”58 From then on, in all the quarterly, half-yearly and annual reports, references were made only to Districts and Village areas. 40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 171 The Three Main Districts Composition and Character

The discussion on the composition and character of the Districts (Dukku, Nafada and Akko) is confined to the capital of the emirate from Nafada to Gombe. This is to enable us to see how and why they were split into more three districts between 1936 and 1960 - the year of Nigeria’s independence. The latter aspects are outside the scope of this paper.

The Headquarters of the Districts

It was the policy of the colonial government that District Heads must always live in their Districts.59 In the case of Dukku and the Galadiman Akko as District Heads, they automatically solved the problem of sitting the headquarters of those Districts, since both officials were resident in those areas and in the towns after which their Districts were named. Thus, Dukku and Akko towns became the headquarters of the two Districts. However Akko did not retain that position for long.

But as for Nafada, it was not the Sarkin- Nafada who was made the District Head. The British appointed Yerima-Jalo, who by 1913 was at Biri–which was part of the amalgamated Nafada District. Neither Nafada town nor Biri were made headquarters of this districts, but Bajoga, the second largest town in the District after Nafada town. It may be easy to argue that Bajoga was made the headquarters of the Yarima’s District because the Emir, Umaru, was forced to transfer from Gombe–Abba to Nafada in 1914 (after which the former capital became just a village Area headquarters). One of the polices of the colonial Government in Northern Nigeria at the time was that when the principal town in a district was the residence of the emir, the District Head would reside elsewhere.60 The Resident of Bauchi province when reporting to the Secretary Northern provinces in August, 1914 on the transfer of the Emir and the residences of the District Head of Nafada stated that “The presence of the Emir and political officer (The D.O in Nafada) renders the Yarima’s residence in Nafada un-necessary.”61 But it is doubtful if these were the real reasons for sustaining the Yerima at Bajoga, or making Bajoga the headquarters of that District. In fact Lugard’s policy was not rigidly adhered to; it was not followed in many parts of theChieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 172 Northern provinces. After all, if this policy had been strictly followed by the administration, the headquarters for the district would have been moved back to Nafada town after the transfer of the Emirate capital headquarters throughout the colonial period. Moreover, when Nafada was the temporary headquarters of the Emirate (1914–1919) the Emir’s residence was not constructed within the town, but some kilometres east of it.

Before we discuss the most likely reason for the stationing of the Yerima at Bajoga, it is important briefly to attempt to give the reason for the transfer of the Emirate capital or the British insistence that the Emir should move from Gombe –Abba to Nafada. The most likely reason is that the Emir was transferred to the British base in order to strengthen the British position to send for the emir–at a period when there were no paved roads and no motor cars. The Resident at that time clearly stated one of the reasons when he observed that “The emir and the political officer were stronger than ever before.”62 It can be assumed that from the comments of the Resident on the movement to Nafada, the Emir was against the idea. He states that “I am not apprehensive at all in the matter (the transfer), for the Emir and Yerima have everything to lose by an outbreak of disloyal fanaticism.63 Thus the second reason for the transfer, was to ‘nip in the bud’ any possible revolt by the people of the former Mahdists strongholds, Bajopa, villages around former Bormi town and so on, all in Nafada District. And this comment gives us a clue into one of the main reasons why the Yerima’s headquarters was sited at Bajoga. Therefore, because of the importance of the area, particularly Bajoga a town next in importance to Bormi64–to the former Mahdist followers, the colonial government may have felt that a higher indigenous authority next to the Emir, should be stationed there.

One possible explanation for not making Nafada the district seat is the old standard one about the corrupting influences of the city especially the colonial town and the “wicked” traders (Niger Company in this case) Perhaps the District imagined (in-correctly, as it turned out) that Nafada, because it was the first trading town in that part of Nigeria would expand like, some of the other trading areas (Sabon-Garis, Lokoja, Onitsha, etc) and that the“traditional” nature of the local people should be protected from these40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 173 corrupting influences” hence even the Emir was kept out of the town.65

On the other hand it is likely that Bajoga was made the headquarters of the District because of British fears across the border to form military territory of Niger. Niger was at this time influenced by Ottoman Turks (who were to be opposed to the British in world War I) and in fact during the war, there was a Tuareg uprising (though not Sanusiyya) in Agades in 1919.66

We should perhaps point out here that foremost of the colonial period, Bajoga and other areas, such as Gwani, Bima-Hill areas (just about fifteen kilometres west of Bormi) remained the most closely watched by the British political officers. And most of the monthly Intelligence reports form Gombe Emirate dealt with these areas. The numerous colonial intelligence reports on the areas and visitors to them, are testimony to the anxieties of the British. It is said that right up to 1976, and beyond the North Eastern State Military government had a special security watch over these areas.

Earlier in this section, we mentioned that Akko town did not retain its position as headquarters of Akko District for long. Akko town, which had been the residence of the Galadima Gombe for most of the 19th C. (since the 1920’s) shared, its position as headquarters of the District with Deba from shortly after the amalgamation of the three Districts in 1913. Thus, from about 1913 to 1936 when Galadimas of Gombe had two capitals, Akko and Deba. However, for most of the period 1913-1936, the Galadimas were more present at Deba than Akko. This was particularly so with Galadima Barunde who was for most of the time on tour of his District. He had temporary residences in almost all the major towns or villages of the District, such as Gwani.

The question, which needs to be asked here is: what made Deba important as from 1913? Deba was important strategically during the years 1913-1918 because of the European war. Towards the end of the 19th Century, Deba became a major slave market. With the British conquest, Deba as border town between Gombe and Adamawa became one of the major stopping points on the British troops supply line particularly during the First World War. Deba was also closer to the Gongola River than Akko. The first road constructed by the colonial government, using forced labour, which linked Bauchi with Gombe and then Yola (using the 19th C. Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 174 trade routes) passed through Deba, until a new one via Gombe-Doma-Kumo-Billiri to Numan was constructed after 1920.

A number of reasons were put forward for the transfer of the dual headquarters of Akko district between 1913 and 1939. When reporting in 1959 on the agricultural potentialities of the various Districts of Gombe Emirate, A.M Krzywon67 claimed that the transfer of the headquarters of Akko permanently to Kumo was caused by a great scarcity of water in and around Akko. We cannot regard this as an appropriate reason since it was put forward in 1959 and moreover its main emphasis was on the transfer to Kumo in 1936. In addition despite the so-called water scarcity, Akko had been a headquarter since the middle of the 19th century.

One account,68 which deals with the question of transfer to Deba, has it that when the First World War started, Deba was made a stopping place for the Germans at Garoua. The colonial government realized that the village head of Deba was not strong or influential enough to take charge of the town. Therefore, the District Head himself (Galadima Barunde), who was a very strong personality, was ordered to transfer his headquarters to Deba on a Semi-permanent basis in ca. 1913/14. This reason is similar to the one given for the transfer of Emir Umaru from Gombe-Abba to Nafada about the same time.

Another account69 puts it that the British advised Galadima Barunde to move from Akko into ‘his’ Tera ‘subject’ areas, which were the least peaceful. The Galadima was said to have chosen Deba; the largest Tera town at that time. This source also indicates that the time when the Galadima was asked to mote to Deba, was the time when a road was being constructed through Gombe emirate to Adamawa and thence to the Cameroon’s border to provide a means of reinforcing British troops during the first world war. The road went through Deba, and Barunde supervised the Akko District section of the road. The Galadima’s supervision of the road construction was presumably the organization of forced labour. The claim that the village head of Deba was not strong or influential is an indication of the failure of a popular local figure to get the required forced labour for the British.

What emerges from the accounts are that Barunde was transferred (on a Semi-permanent basis) to Deba principally to help in the First World War efforts. The headquarters of the40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 175 District was finally transferred from Akko when Tera towns and villages on both sides of the Gongola river were in the process of being reconstituted into a new District - Yamaltu,

At this point let us discuss the composition and character of the three main Districts.

Dukku District

Dukku District derived its name from the town of Dukku. It consisted of scattered Fulbe Villages with a few comparatively large towns. It contained most of the Bolewa towns and villages, in the Emirates together with their main centers like Kalam, Gerikom (Kafarati) Gadam Bajude etc.

The sub-districts retained in the District at the time include that of the Magaji (Zaune, Malala, Ifai and Tali), Sarkin Dabe (Gombe-Abba and later Hashidu), and Santuraki (Bajude, Gadam, Karfarati and Kwoin-Fellata).70 With the transfer of the capital of the emirate in 1914, Gombe-Abba, became just a village area headquarter under Dukku!

By the beginning of the 20th century, the Bolewa had become predominantly Muslim and they and the Fulbe had nearly integrated into one community. However, Gadam and Bellediggo remained at that time, typical Bolewa towns. As regard the office of the District Head, the policy of the British, that the appointment of a District Headman should as far as possible be from the locality (i.e. District) and also from the same family71 was followed. There were two reigning houses: that of Genno (Batuke) Abdu and Kottokore respectively: who were full brothers. The list of the Sarakunan/District Head of Dukku72 is given schematically in Fig. 1. Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 178 The first and second Yerimas were brother – sons of Emir Muhammadu Kwairanga (1844-1882). The third, fourth and fifth Yerimas were also brothers (ands sons of Emir Umaru).

Akko District

Akko District was so named after the town of Akko, about twenty kilometers southwest of Gombe-Abba about twenty kilometres South of the present capital (Gombe-Doma). The name was retained throughout by the military government up to 1976, when it became Akko Local Government. At the time of the amalgamation of the District, the district comprised most Tera land (such as Gwani. Shiga, Wade, Deba, Zambuu and so on). In the District were also a Deba such as Jagala, Pata and Gasi. Thee were also the towns of Panda and Kalshingi which were of Jukun origin in the Waja areas, the Jukun centre in the Emirate- Pindiga and its hamlets such as Dolli and Kanuri. In addition there were a number Fulbe and Kanuri towns on the Bauchi border with the District and many other Fulbe hamlets east of Ligji (on the eastern outskirts of Gombe- Doma).74 There were Doma, Kundulu–an important pre-colonial market centre; and so on.

Succession to the office of the Galadima Akko (and that of Gombe Emirate) was and still is, from the Fulbe Gone family, which through the years has become divided into the first Galadima who was of the Kalshingi house.75 According to an account, 80 of Ahmadu Gona’s were from the Pindiga house. The list of Galadimas of Gombe is given in Fig. 2. 40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 181 their station at Gujba up into Borno proper making it no longer a strategic point.

In addition, during the second decade of colonial rule, a new road (Jos-Bauchi-Gombe-Billiri-Kaltungo-Numan) was proposed, and in fact construction started. Therefore, it was decided that the emirate capital should be sited the major road, or very close to it. By moving the capital Gombe-Doma, the new capital was certainly at a central location where any part of the Emirate could be reached in a day, if on horseback, and in some few hours by car. This therefore may have reduced the cost of communication and shortened the journeys (tours) made by the Divisional officers and other local authorities.

Conclusion

We have examined in this paper the principles used by the British in re-organizing the pre-colonial local authority system in the Emirates of Northern Nigeria with Gombe Emirates as a study case. In evolving their own system of Local Government, the British created the District Head system. We have demonstrated how the new system was fundamentally different; in almost every respect from the pre-colonial local authority system. In the pre-colonial system for example, authority was given to a family or clan head. But under the British, authority was based on territory. Also in the pre-colonial period, the Emirate titled-officials resided at the capital and performed central administrative functions, they relied on their servants (Jakadu) for the tax –collection. However, as we have examined in this paper the British made the District Heads reside in their Districts. Also the District Heads were made to collect the taxes due to the government from all the communities of their Districts. Since in the new pattern of local authority, the British required the District Heads to reside in their Districts and be responsible for tax collection and administration, it meant that a large number of participants and participating units in the pre-colonial political system had to be reduced. Hence, by 1913 the British drastically reduced the ruled units and the number of noble families with authority to three only.

It seems that in the emergence of the pattern of local authority under the British where there were fewer ruling families and fewer units, lay the foundations of widespread political discontent whichChieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 182 began to be evident with the emergence of political party activities in Northern Nigeria in the 1940’s and 1950’s. The struggle by various families and ethnicities for participation in the running of the local government became even more during the colonial period. Many of the pre-colonial ruling families were reduced or denied authority in the local government system. For example, the creation of so many Districts and Local governments in many parts of Nigeria during the second Republic (October 1979-31st December, 1983) and on a larger scale since then was certainly an attempt to change the character of the local government system created during the colonial period.

From 1920, the British began to notice the need to increase the number of local authorities in the various Districts of Gombe. They decided to increase the number of the Districts to six before Nigeria’s independence in 1960. This resulted in an increase in the number of families with authority. Superficially this may look like a reversal of the earlier British policy. But in reality, it was again dictated in part by an imperial policy on the re-organization of Native Administration in non-Muslim areas, and in part by attempts by the British to ‘improve’ the administration of certain areas.

Notes

1.“...Senior Government official in the Province and represents the Lieutenant Governor in all administrative matters...” Lugard, L. (1970) Political Memoranda, Revision of Instructions to Political officers on subject chiefly political and administrative (1913-1918) Third Edition Frank Cass p. l I.

2. Performed Political and Administrative duties and acted assistant to the Resident. For details of continued the role of the D.O. see Ibid p. 12 - 13

3. See Tukur. M.M. (1979) “The Imposition of British Colonial Domination on the Sokoto Caliphate, Borno and Neighbouring States: 1897-1914: A Reinterpretation of Colonial Sources”, PhD Thesis ABU, Zaria p. 208- 209.

4. Ibid p. 208.

5. Ibid p. 209.

6. See Fika, A. M. (1978) The Kano Civil and British Over-Rule 1882-1940, Ibadan Oxford University Press p. 107.

7. Perham, M. 1937, Native Administration in Nigeria, Oxford University Press p. 48

8. NAK, SNP I0. 445 P/1914 Carlyle, T.F. Gombe Emirate History, of p. 32.

9. Ibid p. 32.

10. NAK, SNP 10. 445 P/I914 C Carlyle, T.F. Gombe Emirate History, p. 32. 40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 183

11. Lugard, M. 1970 Political Memoranda, p. 180–182. 12.

12. lbid p. 180.

13. Ibid p. 180.

14. Lugard, L, Political Memoranda, p. 181

15. Ibid p. 181

16. Lugard, L. Political Memoranda p. 181. See also Perham, M. (1937) Native Administration in Nigeria, O.N.P., p. 52.

17. Perham M. (1937) Native Administration in Nigeria, p. 52.

18. Ibid p. 52.

19. Lugard,. Political Memoranda, p. 183.

20. Perham, M. Op. cit p. 52.

21. Perham. M. Native Administration in Nigeria, P. 52.

22. Ibid P. 53.

23. Lugard, L. Political Memoranda, p. 181.

24. Tukur, M.M. 1979, “he Imposition of British Colonial Domination on the Sokoto Caliphate...” PhD ABU Zaria p. 344.

25. Ibid p. 344.

26. For such problems See Hill, P. 1977, Population, Prosperity and Poverty: Rural Kano 1900-1970. Cambridge University Press p. 36–42 and Fika, A.M.: Kano Civil War.. p. 172-173.

27. NAK, SNP I0, 445 P1914 Carlyle, T.F. Gombe Emirate History, of p. 1, part III.

28. Ibid, P. I.

29. NAK, SNP 1 0 . 445 P/I914 Carlyle, T.F. Gombe Emirate History, p. 1 -2 , Part III.

30. NAK. SNP 10. 445 P/1914 Carlyle, T.F. Gombe Emirate History, p. 2 Part III.

31. Ibid, p.2

32. NAK, SNP 10, 445 P/1914 Carlyle, T.F. Gombe Emirate History, p. 3.

33. NAK, SNP 7, 781/1908 F. Goward Resident, Report on the Bauchi Province for December 1907.

34. Op. cit p. 3

35. Carlyle, T. F. Op. cit, p. 3.

36. 36.Carlyle, T.F. P. 4, Gall, F.B., Gazetter Bauchi Province. Compiled in 1920, P. 3 See also Map I and 2 showing proposal amalgamated Districts including Dukku.

37. Carlyle, T. F. p.4.

38. Carlyle, T.F. P.5.

39. Carlyle, T.F. p.5

40. Ibid p.5

41. See AI-Hajj. M.A (1973) “The Mahdist Tradition in Northern Nigeria”, PhD ABU Zaria p. 169 172; Muffet, D.J.M 1964 Concerning Brave Captains, p. 145-46.

42. Carlyle, T.F. History of Gombe ... p. 5.

43. Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe .. p. 6.

44. Ibid P. 6

45. NAK, SNP 17/7245, 1912 Resident F.B. Gall, Report No. 3, Central

Chieftaincy and Security in Nigeria 184

Province, for quarter ended December 1912.

46. NAK, SNP I0, 445/1914 Comments from Resident Bauchi Province F.B. Gall 30th June, 1915.

47. NAK, SNP 10 445/1914 Report of Resident Central Province August, 1914 in Carlyle, Gombe History of p. 102, part IlI Parag. 21.

48. NAK, SNP 10/381 1915 Resident Gall F. B.

49. Resident F.B. Gall, Report 1915.

50. bid

51. Ibid

52. Ibid

53. NAK, SNP 10 526/P/1916 Bauchi Province Report No. 63 300’ June, 1916.

54. Ibid

55. Carlyle T.F Précis of Silent matters of facts and policy file 11/1926.

56. Ibid

57. Carlyle T.F. Précis of Silent Matters of facts and Policy

58. Ibid.

59. Lugard L. Political Memoranda.. p. 314

60. Lugard L. Political Memoranda .. p. 314.

61. See comments of the Resident Bauchi on Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe --comments 23 parag. 57.

62. Carlyle’s History of Gombe, comments 20 Parag. 81

63. lbid P. 81

64. Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe, p. 32.

65. My thanks to Prof. P.J. Shea–BUK, for drawing my attention to this point.

66. Discussion with Prof. P.J. Shea, Kano 1984.

67. Krazwon, A.M. 1959 Agricultural Note Book on Gombe Emirate, p. 3.

68. Interview with Alh. Muhammadu Gao Mutawallin Akko, Sept. 1983.

69. Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe, Part III p. 9.

70. Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe, Part III p. 9

71. Lugard L. Political Memoranda.. p. 314

72. NAK, SNP 10/445, P/1914 Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe.

73. Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe,, p. 15.

74. Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe, p. 27

75. Ibid P. 3 I

76. Carlyle T.F. History of Gombe, p. 34

References

Al-Hajj, M. A., 1973, “The Mahdist Tradition in Northern Nigeria”, PhD thesis, ABU, Zaria.

Fika, A.M. 1978, The Kano Civil War anal British Over-Rule, 1882-1940, Ibadan, Oxford University Press.

Hill, P., 1977, Population, Prosperity and Poverty, Rural Kano 1900 and 1970, Cambridge University Press.

Krazwon, A. N., 1959, Agricultural Note Book on Gombe Emirate, Gombe. 40th Anniversary of the Emirship of HRH Alh. (Dr). .Ado Bayero 185 Lugard, L. (1970) Political Memoranda, Revision of Instructions to Political officers on subject chiefly political and administrative (1913-1918) Third Edition Frank Cass

Muffet, D.1. M., 1964, Concerning Brave Captains, London.

Perham, M., 1937, Native Administration in Nigeria. London, Oxford University Press.

Tukur, M. M., 1979. “The Imposition of British Colonial Domination on the Sokoto Caliphate, Borno and Neighbouring State, 1897-1914: A Reinterpretation of Colonial source”, PhD thesis, ABU Zaria.

Archival Sources, National Archives, Kaduna (NAK)

1. Gall. F. 13., Gazetter Bauchi Province, Compiled in 1920.

2. NAK, SNP 10, 445, P/1914, Carlyle, T.F., Gombe Emirate: History of.

3. NAK, SNP 10/381/1915 Resident F. B. Gall, Bauchi Province, June, 1915.

4. NAK, SNP 7, 781/1908, Goward F., Resident Bauchi (Central) Province, 1907.

5. NAK, SNP 17/7245/1912 Resident F.G. Gall, Report No. 33, Central Province, December 1912.

6. NAK, SNP file 11/1926, Carlyle. F. 1., Précis of Silent Matters of Facts and Policy; Divisional office, Gombe.



Oral Interviews

1. Alhaji Muhammadu Ga’i, Aged 62, Mutawalllin Akko, September, 1982.

2. Alhaji Muhammadu Ngawa, Aged 65, Dukku, 1982.

3. Alhaji Yuguda Umaru, Aged 68, Gombe, 1983.




2 years agoEditDeleteThe Gombe emirate was founded in 1804 during the Fulani jihad by Buba Yero, a follower of Usman dan Fodio.[3] Buba Yero made Gombe Aba his headquarters for a campaign against the Jukun settlements of Pindiga and Kalam, followed by extensive raids in which he went as far as Adamawa on the other side of the Benue River. Further lands were subdued by his son, Muhammadu Kwairanga, Emir of Gombe from 1844 to 1882.[4] The 0 comments2 years agoEditDeleteBuba Yero was the first emir of Gombe emirate and held the title of Modibbo Gombe. Yero was born to a family of mixed heritage, his mother was of Kanakuru heritage while his father, Usman was a kitije Fulani. His paternal grandfather, Aliyu Ukuba was an Islamic scholar who was wedded to a wealthy family. Yero’s father was also a mallam or Islamic scholar and preached Islam in Lakumna, Shellen where he had settled. He 0 comments2 years agoEditDeleteGongola and then across the sandy river-bed to the walls of Gwani .the town is built at the base of the northern slope of the Bima hills, to the summit of which fled many of the fanatical defenders of Burmi after the captures of their stronghold. In order to hunt them down, Gwani for a time was made the military headquarters on the gongola, with a fort, barracks, and parade ground, now deserted in favour of Nafada, h 0 comments2 years agoEditDeleteLocal Authority in Gombe Emirate with particular Reference to the Creation of the District Head System, 1902-1920 Isa Alkali Abba Department of History Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria Introduction This paper discusses the creation of the District Head system in Gombe by the British. This system can be said to have become firmly established by 1913. However, the paper takes us up to 1920 because this was the 0 comments2 years agoEditDeleteON HORSEBACK THROUGH NIGERIA; GONGOLA AND THEN ACROSS THE SANDY RIVER –BED TO THE WALLS OF GWANI THE TOWN BUILT AT THE BASE OF THE NORTHERN SLOPE OF THE BIMA HILLS. BY JOHN DOWNIER FALCONER 1911. The 1925 Territorial Reorganisation of Northern Nigeria Gwani is the only Tera tribes among the territorial reorganisation of northern Nigeria; towards the end of 1925 the colonial state began a major regional reorganis 1 comment2 years agoEditDeleteiam happy to be here. 0 comments3 years agoEditDeletetop 3%by 30-day views1,926total views3followers

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